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Psychology Chapter 12 - CHAPTER 12 INTELLIGENCE MENTAL...

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1CHAPTER 12 INTELLIGENCE, MENTAL ABILITIES & THEIR MEASUREMENT I. FUNCTIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS Psychological tests are used by psychologists for various purposes among them are prediction, control, explanation and description of behavior. They are also used for diagnosis, treatment of emotional problems and for personality assessment and career evaluations. II. CLASSIFICATION FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS Psychological tests can be classified in 5 groups depending on the purpose they are used for. 1. Aptitude & Achievement Tests Aptitude refers to a persons abilities which are usually inherited. Achievement refers to how much a person has learned in a specific subject or task. For example, the test given in a course for mid-term or final is an achievement test, measuring how much a student has learned in the course. 2. Intelligent Tests Intelligent tests are administered to a person to determine his/her intellectual abilities. They usually yield an IQ score (intelligence quotient) which we shall see later in this chapter, is the numerical value of intelligence. Most intelligent tests are administered individually, although there are some group tests available. 3. Interest, Vocational and Attitude Tests These tests demonstrate a person’s interest in a specific area. They can help in guiding a person to choose vocation or career. They also measure general or individual attitudes and opinions. Our likes and dislikes are shown by interest tests. 4. Clinical Tests These tests are sensitive in detection of clinical problems including brain damage or behavioral problems such as ADHD. Persons suspected of brain damage are usually given clinical tests and then referred to a neurologist for further evaluations. 5. Personality Tests Personality tests are the most popular and frequently used psychological tests. They usually evaluate both normal and abnormal personality patterns.
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III. REQUIREMENTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS Psychological tests require 3 major things: reliability, validity, and standardization. Without these requirements, we cannot depend on the outcome of a psychological test. 1. Reliability Reliability refers to consistency of a test to give the same or nearly the same score if it is used more than once. If a person, for example, receives the same score on the second administration of a test, the test is said to have 100% reliability. When a test is administered twice, the correlation between the two scores shows test-retest reliability. Although it is ideal to obtain a correlation of 100%, this is not always possible. Thus, correlations above 90% may be considered reliable.
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