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Unformatted text preview: 1 CHAPTER 7 LEARNING AND CONDITIONING I. DEFINITION Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as the result of experience and practice. Behavior changes due to maturation (change over time period) are not included in this definition. Verbal learning involves learning verbal tasks. Performance learning involves performance tasks learned through practice. VARIOUS TYPES OF LEARNING 1- Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning represents a simple form of associative learning. It is a learning process in which a previously neutral stimulus becomes associated with another stimulus through repeated pairing with that stimulus. The study of classical conditioning began early in the 20 th century when Ivan Pavolv, a Russian physiologist while studying digestion, noticed that a dog began to salivate and learned to associate the sight of the dish with the taste of the food. In his initial experiment, Pavlov placed meat powder in the dogs mouth which produced salivation. He then turned on a light and placed food in the dogs mouth, resulting in salivation. Turning the light few times followed by food created associative learning . When the light was turned on without giving the dog food, the dog salivated to the light. This process is called classical conditioning . Following are major concepts involved: neutral stimulus - a stimulus which does not bring about a response such as light, sound of bell, etc. before it is paired with food. Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) - a stimulus which always brings out a response, such as food, a puff of air, etc. unconditioned response (UCR) - a response always given to unconditioned stimulus, such as saliva produced by food. Conditioned stimulus (CS) - a neutral stimulus such as light, sound of a bell, etc. which by being paired with an unconditioned stimulus acquires the characteristics of UCS. Conditioned response (CR) - a response given to a conditioned stimulus, such as saliva given to light. a - Acquistion and Extinction Acquisition - each paired presentation of the conditionoed stimulus and unconditioned stimulus is called a trial. Continued CS-UCS pairing in different trials generally results in acquisition during which conditioning reaches its maximum. Extinction - when the conditioned stimulus (CS) is presented without the unconditioned stimulus, eventually extinction occurs. In Pavlovs experiment, when the light was turned on (CS) without giving food (UCS)gradually th dog salivated to the light alone. (CS) without giving food (UCS)gradually th dog salivated to the light alone....
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- Spring '07