Psychology Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Treatment of...

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Treatment of Psychological Disorders I. Historical Background Historically, the treatment of psychological disorders leads to cave dwellers. Skulls recovered from such sights indicate carefully designed chips in the form of squares. The process was called trephining and was probably performed to “let out” evil spirits in the brain. Some individuals actually continued living after this procedure. 1. The Ancient Greeks The ancient Greeks has a naturalistic view of the world and the universe. They worship human-looking gods, placing them on the mountain tops. They also had a very naturalistic view of mental illness. Hippocrates (440 B.C.) who is known as the father of medicine proposed specific treatments for mental disorder which are very similar to those proposed today. He recommended the use of pleasant soundings, exercise, good diet, and soothing bath and reduction of stress. This method is currently used in well known clinics for treatment of mentally ill. In the Middle Ages mentally ill were thought to be possessed by evil spirits. Cruel, barbaric and inhuman methods were used to deal with such unfortunate persons. They were flogged and starved by the Middle Age people in order to make evil spirits leave their bodies. Exorcism was widely practiced. The change in treatment of mentally ill began with the work of the French psychiatrist, Philippe Pinel in 18th century. He removed chains that restrained mentally ill persons and released them from dungeons called asylums. In the early 1900’s the general public still viewed the inmates of mental hospitals as fearful people. Patients were in isolation rooms, chained to poles and out of community at large for their entire life. 2. Modern Treatment Facilities In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, great changes occurred in the treatment of mentally ill persons. Sigmund Freud in Austria proposed the psychogenetic view of mental illness, stating that stress and conflict are the major causes of many such problems. Other psychiatrists also forwarded physical and neurological factors as causes of abnormal behavior. Large psychiatric hospitals gradually were abandoned towards the middle of the 20th century. Today, the treatment of mentally disturbed people has shifted from hospitals to community treatment centers. No one has to spend all his/her life in a hospital anymore. 3.
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Psychology Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Treatment of...

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