Psychology 1

Psychology 1 - LECTURE 0 COURSE INTRO -Experimental...

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Sheet1 Page 1 LECTURE 0 COURSE INTRO -Experimental psychology- conduct experiments to better understand how the brain and the mind work. -5 basic assumptions of psychological science 1. Evolution-genes make brains 2. Materialism-brains make minds 3. Idealism-minds make reality 4. Sociality-reality is social 5. Empiricism-despite our perception of reality being a phenomenological construct the best way to understand the world is th r o -False dichotomies of psychology 1. Nature v. Nurture 2. Mind v. Brain-the mind is what the brain does - walking is what the legs do 3. Person v. Situation-you cannot understand any phenomenon by extricating the person from the context they are acting in LECTURE 1 EMPIRICISM -empiricism-experiments -what psychology experiments need to include in order to find out what we want to know -how we come to know things about the world -the science of observation-measurement, samples, bias -the science of explanation-correlation, causation, creating experiments, drawing conclusions -twin studies-lori and reba shappell are conjoined at the forehead-they are fully happy -dogmatikos-belief -empirikos-experience -aristotle, euclid tried to see where light came from-arab said if you look at the sun you go blind -empiricism is far from infallible -the sun circles the earth, it is flat, there are no genes, etc according to simply observing the world -human behavior is very observable so is psychology very easy? -three problems for psychology-why is it difficult to study humans -1. complexity-500 million interconnected neurons -2. variability-no two individuals act the same way -3. reactivity-people react different ways when observed or not -observing people scientifically is far more difficult than people watching -need to create definitions for measurements -just like animal behavior -measurements are a series of steps -defining and detecting -property-happiness, operational definition-smiling, measuring-emg for facial muscles -construct validity-the extent to which the property and the definition are related -what about increased activity in the right frontal lobe? is this related to happiness? -predictive validity-the extent to which a definition is related to other definitions -reliability-the extent to which the measurement produces the same result -power-the extent to which a measure produces different results when it measures different things -sampling is a way to get science done while not wasting time -small random selections are taken from populations -law of large numbers-as sample size increases the average property of the sample more closely reflects the average propert y -the average human being is 66 inches
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Sheet1 Page 2 -observer bias and subject bias -demand characteristics-aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think an observer wants or e x -avoiding subject bias-ensure anonymity, measure involuntary or nonobvious behaviors, keep the subject blind to the hypothe s -double blind is the best -explanations-look at the relationship between variables
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course PSYC 001 taught by Professor Marsh during the Spring '08 term at Georgetown.

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Psychology 1 - LECTURE 0 COURSE INTRO -Experimental...

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