Niche and Habitat - Salmon and Steelhead (Thompson)

Niche and Habitat - Salmon and Steelhead (Thompson) - Niche...

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Unformatted text preview: Niche and Habitat: Salmon and Steelhead WFC 10 17 October 2007 Lisa Thompson Fisheries Extension Specialist Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation Biology Department University of California, Davis Outline "Niche and habitat change with the life stage of the organism." Salmon life history Salmon life stages Habitat Niche Conservation issues Definitions Habitat Distribution Actual location in the environment where the organism lives Niche Role of organism in community Fundamental Niche Based on physical and chemical habitat, and food availability Realized Niche Also includes interactions with predators and competitors Salmon and Steelhead Chinook salmon Steelhead / Rainbow Trout Coho salmon Salmonid Life Cycle FRESHWATER ESTUARY Spawners Alevin Adult Fry Smolt Egg OCEAN ESTUARY Parr Watersheds in Northern California Federal project State project Local project Wild & scenic Natural lake, river Saline / alkaline lake Irrigated area Urbanized area Pumping or power plant Map courtesy of the Water Education Foundation What is the fish trying to do? Survive Grow Reproduce Why do habitat and niche change with life stage? Egg ~ 1 cm 3/8" Habitat Egg Life Stage Redd Photo by Jenna Voss Irrigation Diversion Cow Creek Water Temperature Species Migration Water Temperature (F) Spawning Incubation Juvenile Rearing Preferred Optimum Lethal Chinook (Fall run) Chum Coho Steelhead 51.1-66.9 42.1-57.0 46.9-60.1 45.0-55.0 45.0-60.1 39.9-48.9 --39.0-48.9 41.0-57.9 39.9-55.9 39.9-55.9 --- 45.1-58.3 52.2-58.3 53.2-58.3 45.1-58.3 54.0 56.3 --50.0 77.4 78.4 78.4 75.4 Source: Adapted from Beschta et al. (1987) Note: C = (F-32)/1.8 Bank Erosion & Siltation Dissolved Oxygen Response DO (ppm) Percent Oxygen Saturation at Given Temperatures Water Temperature (F) Function without impairment Initial distress symptoms Most fish affected by lack of oxygen 7.75 6.00 4.25 32 76 57 38 41 76 57 38 50 76 57 38 59 76 59 42 68 85 65 46 77 93 72 51 Adapted from Bjornn & Reiser (1991) Note: Less oxygen can be dissolved in warm water than in cold water. Therefore the same amount of DO results in a higher percent saturation at higher temperatures. Alevin ~ 3 cm 1" Photo by Marj Trim Habitat Alevin Life Stage Fry ~ 4 cm 1 " Photo by Gerard Carmona Catot Habitat Fry Life Stage Shallow Edge Habitat Bank Erosion & Siltation Parr ~ 9 cm 3" Photo by Jenna Voss Habitat Parr Life Stage Parr foraging in deeper water Photo by Jenna Voss Chinook salmon parr foraging http://youtube.com/watch?v=xRgSSQcxL08 Steelhead/Rainbow Trout & Large Wood Steelhead/Rainbow Trout & Large Wood Photo by Jenna Voss Steelhead/Rainbow Trout & Large Wood Photo by Jenna Voss Loss of large wood and pools Gualala River Exotic species Brook trout Brook trout Rainbow trout Photo by Gerard Carmona Catot Coho Salmon Smolt ~ 15 cm 6" Habitat Smolt Life Stage River & Estuary Habitat Santa Clara River Estuary Suisun Marsh Diversions = Detours Federal project State project Local project Wild & scenic Natural lake, river Saline / alkaline lake Irrigated area Urbanized area Pumping or power plant Map courtesy of the Water Education Foundation Rip-rapped bank Lower American River Habitat Adult Life Stage Santa Clara River Estuary & Ocean Spring-run Chinook Salmon Spawners ~ 0.75 m 2' Habitat Spawner Life Stage Chinook Salmon Spawner Migrating Redd Photo by Jenna Voss Butte Creek Chinook salmon spawning http://www.buttecreek.org/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A8vPcOv3E0g&NR=1 Dams & Barriers are Roadblocks to Fish Shasta Dam, 1945, Central Valley Project. Dams & water diversions block fish movement to headwaters of Central Valley streams Dead spawner adding nutrients to stream Salmon & Steelhead Life Histories Chinook Years in Stream Years in Ocean Spawner Age 0-1 1-7 4 Coho 1 2 3 Steelhead 1-3 1-4 27 (may spawn more than once) Adult Size Eggs per Female Up to 100 lb. 7-12 lb. Up to 27 lb. 5,00012,000 2,000 5,000 200 12,000 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course WFC 010 taught by Professor Moyle during the Fall '07 term at UC Davis.

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