Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - notes from all 8:36:32 PM I Humans and...

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12/11/07 8:36:32 PM notes from all 1 I. Humans and Wildlife (Moyle) A. Pre-European Era 1. • Wildlife populations changed drastically after human invasion Native Americans had a major impact on the landscape But still large populations of species coexisted with humans B. Era of Exploitation 1. • Negative attitudes about wilderness and wildlife, felt it interfered with progress Founding of wildlife management agencies and parks Science-based studies C. Era of Protection 1. • Protection mainly on extremes of overexploitation Appreciation of need for strong governmental role in conservation Theodore Roosevelt founded the U.S. forest service D. Era of Game Management 1. • Scientific management of wildlife accepted Focus on harvestable species, i.e. increased demand for fishing and hunting Realization of environmental damage by by-products of rampant civilization Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring which opened the public’s eyes to the harmful effects of pesticides, DDT E. Era of Envirornmental Management 1. • Recognition of need to protect environment Major environmental legislation passed Growing recognition that human and ecosystem health are tied together F. Era of Conservation Biology 1. • Climate change a growing issue Rainforests being destroyed Lots of pollution going on Named era of conservation biology in optimistic assumption that our knowledge of ecology will allow us to solve the problems II. Wildlife and Polution (Moyle) A. 1. Historically we have treated the air, water, and soil around us as waste receptacles. Resulting in wildlife populations being exposed to a plethora of harmful chemicals 2. There are three major things that have had a very severe influence over wildlife throughout history. The pesticide DDT Oil spills Toxic metals 3. DDT DDT began its use around WWII because it worked extremely well as a pesticide, and it saved many lives from malaria and other diseases. In the late 1960’s biologists realized that DDT was having disastrous effects on wildlife, it caused eggshell thinning in birds, so when the mother bird would go to incubated her eggs she would crush them. In the 1970’s most industrialized countries banned the use of DDT DDT would also accumulate in the food chain through biomagnifications. 4. Oil Spills When large oil tankers spill crude oil it has extremely detrimental effects on the environment. When birds and mammals get covered in the oil the insulating property of their fur or feathers is lost. They then get hypothermia and usually die. The Exxon Valdez Oil spill was the worst spill to ever occur in North American waters. 11 million gallons of crude oil spilled into Prince William Sound.
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Final Study Guide - notes from all 8:36:32 PM I Humans and...

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