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Music Appreciation Class Notes - Music Appreciation Class...

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Music Appreciation Class Notes Music Elements Notation Melody Rhythm Harmony Texture Form Dynamics Timbre Notation Written on paper, so that the music may be performed again and again Music notation system Enjoyment and understanding of most music is not dependent upon the ability to read and interpret written music notation Melody- (line, space) A succession of single tones or pitches that are perceived to be unified. o Ex. Brahms, Symphony No. 1 4 th movement Characteristics of melody Pitch- the highness or lowness of a tone, depending on the frequency (rate of vibration) o Ex. Beethoven, symphony no. 5 in c minor, 1 st movement Interval- the distance and relationship between two pitches. o Ex. Chopin, prelude in e minor, op. 28, no. 4 Range- the distance between the lowest and highest tones of a melody, an instrument or a voice. (narrow, medium or wide) Phrase- as in language, a unit of meaning within a larger structure; thus, a melody may be divided into component phrases o Ex. Beethoven, Symphony No. 9, 4 th movement, “ode to joy” Types of Voices Bass- lowest range man Baritone- medium woman Tanner-highest range man Alto- lowest woman voice Mezzo-soprano- medium woman Soprano-highest woman Rhythm- (Rhythm, Pattern, Repetition, Time) Rhythm- The element of time in music o Ex. Ravel, bolero Characteristics of Rhythm Beat- regular pulsation; a basic unit of length in musical time. o Ex. Haydn, Symphony No. 94 (Surprise), third movement Accent- emphasis on a note, so that it is louder or longer than another. Tempo- the rate of speed or pace of the musical pulse. (largo, adagio, andante, allegro) Harmony- (Balance)
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The simultaneous combination of notes and the ensuing relationships of intervals and chords. o Ex. Mozart, piano concerto in c major, k. 467, second movement Syncopation- deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse through a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat, or an offbeat. Chord- simultaneous combination of tones (typically three or more) that constitute a single block of harmony. Texture- The interweaving of melodic (horizontal) and harmonic elements in the musical fabric. Monophonic- one voice/part presents a single melody Homophonic- principle melody and accompanying harmony. o Ex. Mozart, piano concerto in c major, k. 467, second movement Polyphonic- two or more melodies combine into a multi-voiced texture. o Ex. Mozart, requiem, “Kyrie eleison” Heterophonic: two or more voices/parts elaborate on the same melody simultaneously. Form- (Shape, Form) Form- the structure or shape of a musical work, based on repetition, contrast, and variation; the organizing principle of music. Characteristics of Form: Repetition- within a form, repetition fixes the material in our mind and satisfies our need for the familiar; it provides unity to a form.
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