Unformatted text preview: The Rise and Fall of the First Chinese State
Four-Class society of Shang Royal Clan o divided into ten lineages Nobility, "Clans of Descendants" o junior sons of the King will be nobility "Multitude" o retainers, artisans, farmers Slaves o captured in war; used for menial labor and human sacrifice Shang Conception of the Divine Shangdi o , the High God: Amoral, indifferent to fate of humanity, but allpowerful Ancestor Godso : Intercede with High God on behalf of their living descendants All persons of noble/royal birth believed to become gods in the afterlife
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Heaven and Mandate of Heaven Supreme authority: Tian o In contrast to the High God of Shang, Heaven made moral judgments about human affairs Most important, Heaven raised up the most virtuous ruler as "Son of Heaven" and sovereign of the human world The Zhou kings based the legitimacy of their rule on this divine sanction (the Mandate of Heaven, tianming h )
Patrimonial State of the Zhou ; " e l j" S n m 9 5 nm 9 OE f3 p j" sj " a 6 " ; " e l j" Xoe ̸ " X oe " 8 pF m9 nm 9 d w L j " j l K 0 h a 6 " ` S l Mandate of Heaven entrusted to royal clan as a whole Share sovereignty: king distributed lands (through enfeoffment, fengjian o ) to members of royal clan as their proper share of the clan's patrimony Non-king allies "adopted" as fictive kinfolk of the Zhou royal house Zhou kings and Charisma still have charisma through relationship with the divine, but source is changed. Shang conception of charisma still exists; vassals of the Zhou continue to practice rituals, including sacrifice, to communicate with their ancestors Zhou family does this as well to show respect to their ancestors But also worship Heaven, legitimizes them as transcendent rulers Fall of Western Zhou to the Quan Rong (h ) h s j " e ; " e l j " R j " R nm 9 5 m9 n Xoe " nm 9 5 m9 n Xoe " nm 9 " 5 m n " Xoe " X oe " e 2 5 r 5g 5 2 5 r j " dm9 X oe " K X oe " K : 5 F m 9 zng4 X w 5g 5 5 Fm 9 5 Fm ) lK 0 l lK 0 l lK 0 l 1o 4X 1 250 Z X 1 ZX 1 Happens just as Zhou borders are threatened; capital overrun by Quan Rong "barbarians" in 773 BCE
Kingship Wang Zhou kings, especially King You, weak and complacent, unable to stop devolution of power to the local level, epitomized by the spread of the use of the term Wang h .
The "three great affair" h "Three Great Affairs" o that defined the social and political roles of the Zhou aristocracy: (1) war; (2) hunting; (3) sacrifice Each of these activities involved taking life and spilling blood Pledges and treaties were consecrated by blood oath. Confucius and His Times
Spring and Autumn period Dividing line is fall of Zhou in 771 BCE Eastern Zhou can be divided into two parts: Spring and Autumn (era of fragmentation) Warring States (era of consolidation) Spring and Autumn is named after a Confucian text that discusses this era Central States (Zhongguo) vs. Barbarians Western Zhou capital had been sacked, new Eastern Zhou capital at Luoyang Zhou court powerless, but still recognized by the 15 or so major states, known as zhongguo, the "central states"o Those outside the Zhou ritual order considered "barbarians" Vassal states in constant war to increase power and charisma, "barbarians" take advantage of chaos to move in on weaker states
Hegemon (ba) keep preserve the zhou states The king vs. hegemon "Hegemon" o military strongman who claimed to act in the name of the Zhou king First hegemon: Duke Huan of Qi o , in 667 BCE Duke Huan guided by Machiavellian minister Guan Zhong o Use the position to maintain the Zhou order keep balance of power among states and keep "barbarians" out of Zhou territory Later, dukes of Jin o claimed title of hegemon Institution died out ca. 500 BCE
SHI Member of the (shi o ) low ranking nobility once aristocratic warriors, this group was now known for cultural excellence Never able to find meaningful employment as a political counselor Becomes China's first private teacher s K0 . 1 d w L d w L Vh V y ~ s K0 e l K 0 = Vd w L Vd w L Vv w L T, V Vv w L ` 1 K 0 ^ 1 G 1 G 1 V h V y s K0 ~ s K0 ` 1 . Gλ 1 l K0 Gλ 1 l K0 N Z p K 0 s K0 p v w L V v ws L K0 mR o . T ,V . l l Five Great Relationships Well ordered society depends on people understanding the proper relationships between people and behaving in an appropriate manner Family as microcosm: have both obligations and bonds of affection Defined the "Five Great Relationships" 1. Ruler-Subject 2. Father-Son 3. Husband-Wife 4. Elder brother Younger Brother 5. Friend-Friend
Dao h The Way" (things ought to be)
h ^ Li i h h h ( f 3 pj " p Fm9 n m9 dw L `d Rites, ritual, honor; codes of behavior that govern all aspects of the individual's life.
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Starts during the second half of the Eastern Zhou, also known as the Warring States period In this era of uncertainty, many shi ask about the nature of the world, why things are so wrong, and how to fix society Realm of inquiry exceptionally diverse, including nature of knowledge and linguistics Also had practical thinkers, such as Sunzi, whose ideas about the military were in high demand Mozi and Laozi Mozi and Laozi might be considered the original critics of Confucius Challenge his belief in a moral order to the universe, the transformative power of ritual, and the universal nature of the patriarchal family model Criticized Confucians for not doing enough to change the world: Were Confucians fatalistic? Mozi (ca. 480-390) Mozi h lived at the start of the Warring States period, when the downfall of the Zhou dynasty was only a matter of time Like Confucius, he teaches potential administrators and promotes meritocracy Unlike Confucius, he left a great deal of writings but was largely forgotten until relatively recently Laozi and Confucius Differences can be glimpsed in the Daoist conception of the ideal society Challenges the positivism of Confucians, who wanted to change the world by bringing back early Zhou society Both focus on the dao, but their conceptions of "the way" are at odds with each other
Universal Love (h ) Mozi basic ideas Humans motivated by self-interest Rejects family as a model of morality Instead promotes his concept of Jian'ai h Youwei h Mozi's Utilitarianism In response to chronic warfare, Mozi rejects Confucian "passivism" and advocates a philosophy of action termed youwei h Followers of Mozi develop practical military technology, becoming experts in defensive warfare Wanted to make military aggression unprofitable so that powerful states would find it in their best interest to solve problems through non-military means Daoism, Language, and Knowledge Confucianism also concerned with language, seen in the Rectification of Names But in Daoism, language seen as artificial, impossible to express reality Human knowledge limited by language Acting on partial knowledge creates unintended consequences, often making things worse Questioning of knowledge elaborated in Zhuangzi's "Dream of the Butterfly"
n m 9 n m 9 5 n m 9 5 nm 9 5 Fm 9 & λ " & λ " e & " & " ) : 2 r5 l j" l j" R R Wiwei h : Non-action
~ s j " " s j " ; " e l j" R j h The Warring States
Autocratic State (contraction and expansion of power) & Warring States Military & Professionalization of government service, Period refers to the second half of the Eastern Zhou Period of consolidation following the fragmentation of the Spring and Autumn era 500 BCE is turning point, no hegemon, stronger states start incorporating smaller and weaker states Eventually Qin, Wei, Qi, and Chu are final combatants with a new goal: military conquest of the known world Era also sees the emergence of a new kind of state: the autocratic state Rise of the Autocratic State Autocratic state is both an expansion and contraction of the Zhou polity Rulers claimed title of "king" formerly restricted to the Zhou rulers Military men or ministers often come to power, replacing traditional aristocratic leaders Centralization of control over economic resources New concept of social stratification Creation of professional civil service New tactics and technology of warfare Meritocracy Hostility toward hereditary privilege common to all the major schools of thought in the Warring States era Reflected waning belief in charismatic authority of the nobility But Mohists, Confucians, and Legalists differed in their definition of "merit" Well-Field System
nm 9 W ; " 5 nm 9 j" " "m 9 e lj" R & " j " & λ " 5 Fm9 : l K0 l " " 3 6 B " h h Mencius Xin and Xing (h ) Mengzi h offers rebuttal to Confucian critics Focused on human nature, a topic Confucius had not been explicit on The human nature debate Emerges in 4th century BCE with Mencius and Yang Zhu Yang Zhu introduces term for human nature: xing h In Daoism, no such thing as human nature, the focus on xin h : the heart/mind Gaozi: people have innate sense of benevolence (ren h ) but no innate sense of righteousness (yi h ) Mencius on Human Nature Unlike Gaozi, felt humans had both benevolence and righteousness Identified the "four beginnings" Compassion Shame Sense of right and wrong Respect Becomes the four Confucian virtues: Benevolence h Righteousness h Wisdom h Proper conduct h To reach full moral potential, must use the heart/mind to overcome desires Everyone has h potential to become a sage Moral excellence, not social class, made one a true Gentleman Elite/commoner distinction based on morality, with those working with their minds ruling those who worked with their hands Both see humans as misled by desire Mencius wants to use will power to overcome desire, while Daoists seek to dissolve the ego Both agreed that the ruler had certain things he had to do to keep the people happy But Mencius is explicit on needed social system, including public schools and the well field system Unlike Confucius, Mencius had lost faith the Zhou dynasty Challenges hereditary rule by bringing a Confucian perspective to the Mandate of Heaven But with rise of autocratic state, more cynical philosophies prove that it does not take benevolence to unite the world Legalism and the Architects of Empire: Shang Yang, Xunzi, and Han Feizi
Legalism h Legalist policies and legalist philosophy provided the Qin state with ability to unite the Realm in 221 BCE Early legalist thinkers were statesmen, not philosophers Legalism was a fairly young scholastic tradition Drew on a fairly extensive history of the use of law Law in dynastic China Evidence for law code dates to the Shang/Zhou transition Law generally seen as only for commoners; nobles have li, commoner need fa First known legal code was created by Zichan in the state of Zheng Shang Yang h Shang Yang (d. 338 BCE), at first a minor official in Wei, became a powerful minister in the Qin state who would later be recognized as one of the founders of legalism His policies, such as applying laws equally regardless of rank, helped make Qin powerful, but also made him few friends Shang Yang and legalist political philosophy Like Mozi, saw humans as motivated by self-interest Like Laozi, felt ethics had no basis in nature Felt that only law could order the state, but only if law was intelligible, equitable, absolutely objective, and strictly enforced Punishment was harsh: in addition to bodily mutilation and capital punishment, there were the punishments of chiseling the crown, extracting ribs, and boiling in a cauldron Draconian punishments balanced by the fact that everyone was to know the system Xunzi and Han Feizi Xunzi and Han Feizi belonged to the last generation of Warring States philosophers Due to their influence on the emerging imperial state, both would be loudly denounced by later generations Xunzi was a Confucian, attempting to adapt Confucianism to the realities of the Warring States era Han Feizi was the finest legalist thinker, providing legalism with a philosophical understanding Xunzi o From the small state of Zhao personal name was o He was the first "academic" philosopher in China, examining and responding earlier leading thinkers He identified himself as Confucian and felt Mozi was an arch-enemy, failing to recognize how much Mozi had influenced him Human nature and Human potential Contradicting Mencius, Xunzi claimed that human nature was evil, with no innate moral principles This cynical view of human nature is matched with a positive outlook concerning the possibility of improvement Moral order came from the power of o over o Sages helped others with the creation of ritual codes, which curbed desires and ended strife Li could produce a moral transformation by internalizing morality Han Feizi Han Feizi was another academic thinker who criticized and synthesized the work of others A minor prince from the small state of Hann, Han Feizi studied under Xunzi, as did LiSi Unable to get his cousin the king of Hann to heed his advice, Han Feizi vented his frustration by writing essays on statecraft His writings found their way to Qin, where they delighted the future First Emperor Han Feizi eventually made his way to the Qin court, but before he was able to gain the Qin ruler's trust, he was betrayed by LiSi Key concepts h fa : law or model h shu : methods or arts h shi : strategic advantage nm 9 p Fm 9 ; " h 3 I " " n m9 nm9 5nm 9 nm 9 e lj" R & "G " " nm[ d w L 9 j" "8 " G λ1 l K0 Gλ 1 l " " " ~ s " 5nm 9 5 nm 9 5Fm 9 " " & " 1 G & " 1 G e T, V 8 6 l K0 l K0 l i l The Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE) The Rise of fall of the First Empire
The rise of the Qin brings the Warring States era to a close and marks the start of the Imperial Era Qin had long been a marginal state, even seen as "barbarian" until they adopted institutions and cultural practices from Zhou China Success due to the ability of the autocratic state to mobilize the entire population towards the goal of conquering the Realm Legalist thinkers, including Han Feizi, help provide the framework for the Qin state by repudiating charismatic authority Han Feizi's "Five Vermin" Scholars Speechmakers Soldiers-Fortune Draft Evaders Merchants The first emperor Born in 259 BCE; ruled as King Zheng of Qin o Pupil of Han Feizi; but later favored LiSi instead Unified empire founded in 221 BCE; King Zheng took new title of Qin Shihuangdi o , "first of the Radiant Theocrats of Qin" Died in 210 BCE at age of 49 Yellow Emperor o Cult of the Yellow Emperor patronized by Legalist rulers of Qin Yellow Emperor credited as inventor of both ritual codes and penal law; exercised legitimate use of force vs. rebels & barbarians Yellow Emperor also considered patron of medicine The "Clerical Script" o devised by the Qin Dynasty became the standard written form of Chinese down to the present Qin imperial road system The Qin road system facilitated transmission of government documents, troop movements, and delivery of taxes to the capital Banning of Private Teachings 214 BCE sees him "burning of books and the burying of scholars" Only books that were practical or concerned Legalism were tolerated Extreme punishments ensured widespread compliance After becoming upset with a particular group of scholars, the First Emperor selects 460 scholars to be put to death, possibly by burying them alive The Downfall of the Qin The First Emperor dies young in the year 210 BCE perhaps due to toxic poisoning Power flows to Zhao Gao, the first in a long line of notorious eunuchs Li Si, the real power behind the throne, put to death Government soon collapses as various rebels rise up harsh Legalist system ideal for obtaining power, but not for maintaining power Xiang Yu h foresaw a confederacy along the lines of the Zhou polity, but was defeated by Liu Bang h , who looked to maintain the centralized and autocratic state inherited from Qin Wudi: Activist Emperor
Pursues military campaigns, expands the empire's borders even beyond those of the Qin This includes fostering trade routes along what will eventually be known as the Silk Road Starts government monopolies on certain key good such as salt and iron Promotes the recruitment of a highly educated administrative elite, a new version of the shi After his death in 81 BCE, Confucians and Legalists debate his policies: Confucians lose the battle, but win the war Salt and Iron Debates Legalist View: Must achieve the greatest possible exploitation resources and the most effective distribution of its products Wrest profits from private hands and bring them into those of the state Encourage manufacture, trade, and transport; a stable coinage was essential for such purposes Confucian View: Government should provide moral leadership and not interfere in commercial activities Officials should not engage in commercial activities Agriculture, not commerce, central to economic well-being o o o 241 o o o 180 o o s K0 o s K0 2 f ,,1 o 2 f ,, 1 o ^ K0 o 2 f ,, 1 s K0 i wL o oo o oo o o o o oo o o o o o 2 f ,, 1 o 2 f ,, 1 s K0 o oo sK0 oo o o Vv o o 2 f ,, ^ o o o 156 o --o 87 o o K0 i wL o o o s K0 o 2 f ,, o vo V " oo o o o oo oo o . ^ 1 s K0 M " e l K0 "o " K0 o Mo o ~ s K0 ; m 1 y V T, V V Vv wL ? o 4 m 1 . _ 1 e l K0 K0 o ~ s K0 ; m 1 o o . _ 1 e l K0 K0 o Md o Vh V Vv wL NZ p K0 p v wL o o l R p NZ p K0 wL d wL d wL ` ayE 4 m 1 o 4 m o o "o "m o sK 0 o y Vv wL T, V ~ s K 0 o . ] o ~ s K o o o o 87 4 m 1 e 0 ; m o o 1o o l K0 K0 o o o 1 o 4 m o o o _ K 0 i wL o oo oo o Md o o oo Vv w ; m 1 o o o o o 202 o  - 220 o o o " " o 202 o --8 o )o "o "(o 25 o -- 220 o Mo 2 m 1 o 2 m 1 o 2 m 1 o o o o 2 m ᷪ o 2 m ᷪ o o 8o o 23 o o o 209 o o o sK 0 o o o "o o2 m ᷪ 1 o . ^ 1 e l K0 o Mo 202 o ~ s K 0 "m" 1 sK 0 sK 0 o " p y "m 1o o y V NZ p K0 Vv wL . ] 1 o 2m ᷪ d wL NZ p K0 e l K0 o o o oo sK 0 sK 0 V d wL T, V " " o 206 o o o o o K0 o 2m ᷪ 1o o 4 m 1 T, V wL e l K0 Vv w" 1 d wL ` o o 154 o 2 m " o o K0 ᷪ 1 # ` a y "o 1o o 2m ᷪ 1 p v wL p o . ^ 1 " 2m ᷪ 1 o 141 o --o 87 o 2 m wL [ d wL G 1 wL d wL d wL K0 o " "m -- oo [o h ^ " ]h 1o o o I 1o K0 i wL " 8 o s K0 I 1 o I o V 14 o o h I 1 o o 23 o o o o I 1 o o oo I 1 o o o 25 o o o ~ s K0 I 1 . o h I 1 h I o s K0 o h I o 37 o o o o oo oo ~ s K0 I 1 o s K0 o V hV Vv wL NZ p K0 p v wL o o v R NZ p K0 p v wL d wL d wL wL o oo ] K0 I 1 o ~ s K0 i wL I 1 "o Vo "I 1 s K0 o o o o o o V G 1 d wL G 1 G 1 o o wL V Vv w o s K0 p v wL d wL ,, NZ p K0 p ~ s K0 I 1 pvw L d wL o 184 o o o o o p v wL d wL ~ s K0 I 1 1 ~ s K0 o o o I 1 o ] K0 i wL d wL [ d wL v wL d wL . 168 ] K0 i wL d wL [ d wL ^ K0 i wL d wL [ d wL . 220 o o o I 1 d wL oo o oo i wL [ d wL " d wL NZ p K0 p v wL I 1 o o o oo o o oo o o o oo o K0 d wL o oo o s K0 o I 1 o I o ^ p v wL d wL d wL I 1 2 o o o G 1 d wL o " Vv w NZ p K0 p v wL o I 1o oo ` o o I 1 o o V hV Vv wL p v wL d wL dwL o o ~ s K0 ` 1 c & o V NZ p K0 p v wL , NZ p K0 p v wL NZ p K0 p v wL p v wL d wL d wL CR NZ p K0 p v wL B 1 o ] K0 i wL B K0 i wL oo c & 33 B 1 o B 1 o NZ p K0 p v wL [ d wL G 1 G Vv wL d wL d wL d wL [ d wL d wL V o oo oo T, V d wL ` d wL d wL ` d wL d wL ` d wL G 1 G d wL ` d wL Vv o B 1 oo oo oo oo oo y o o o 179 o o o 104 o B o " 2000 h 1o oo o o o o o h ͻ o s K0 hͻ ~ s " 1 K0 o h 1 o o h ͻ" ] " o B 1 o "h V K 0 i wL 0 K i wL oo o o o Vv w L " " 0 V o~ sK v Vv w 1 oooo NZ "K0 p "wL 0 B 1 . " o B ෪ o o o sK 0 B ෪ o oo oo oo oo s K 0 s" 0 oooo oooo o o o oo ooo B ෪ o o 1 " Salt and Iron Debates Legalist View: Must achieve the greatest possible exploitation resources and the most effective distribution of its products Wrest profits from private hands and bring them into those of the state Encourage manufacture, trade, and transport; a stable coinage was essential for such purposes Confucian View: Government should provide moral leadership and not interfere in commercial activities Officials should not engage in commercial activities Agriculture, not commerce, central to economic well-being Rise of the Great Clans Han officials gain wealth and land through employment, continue to increase the size of their estates Wealth allow them to educate future generations Clans become virtually closed class of 1000-2000 families During Han tied closely to the dynasty through employment, but wealth creates independent power base Rise of the clans weakens the Han court, becomes a serious problem with the death of Pingdi in 6 CE o oo s K0 s K0 o o ^ o o o o K0 o . 1 iw L e lK0 oZ ] o K 0 o Vv w Z o p v wL o I oo o o oo y o Z dw L T ,V dw L V hV V vw L y [d w L Vv w L o T, V Gλ1 Gλ1 o y T ,V V hV Vv w L 1 o o o 45 o --23 o 10 o 6 o o V vw L oo o ^ / 1 o y o o T, V Z Wang mang o Wang Mang deposed the child-emperor in 9CE and established his own Xin o dynasty Initiated fundamentalist reform of government based on the Rituals of Zhou o Attempted to curb the growth of the clans by bringing all land under stateownership Natural disaster the Yellow River changes course creates widespread peasant revolts including the "Red Eyebrows"; Wang Mang deposed and killed in 23CE (Han Dynasty was restored) Wang Mang and his "New" Dynasty divide the Former Han and the Later Han; also can be called Western Han and Easter Han, as when the dynasty is restored it makes Luoyang its capital o o o o d . 1 " elK0 K o o sK 0 o o o o oo~ sK 0 7/ᷪ1 o J 1 J p v wL p v wL Z / " "1 oo o o o "d w " " dwL o sK 0 "d w L d wL" " "o [ dw L [ dw " o oo oo oo oo o G 1 " "1 G λ 1 G λ 1 ^ p v wL K0 dwL iwL d wL [ dw L V G 1 G λ o o V o o oo J o NZpK0 o pv wL oo J1 dw L dw L ` o o ] " s "0 " Z /ᷪ1 " K0 o iwL VvwL o y V v "d T ,V Lord of Mt. Tai o The Lord of Mt. Tai was the underworld counterpart to the Han emperor Like the Han emperor, the Lord of Mt. Tai headed a vast bureaucracy; the infernal officials investigated the sins and merits of the decreased to determine their fate in the afterlife Sinners were condemned to the "subterranean prisons" o underneath the mountain o hh o oo y Z/ 1 " o " T ,V /ᷪ h h VhV h" d h Vv w L = Way of Celestial Masters o : founded tightly-organized utopian religious communities in northwestern China in late 2nd century CE o ^ W෪ oo o ~ sK 0 o p 1 . o ^ W෪ 1 o ^ W෪ Yellow Turbans o : peasant rebels vs. Han; arose in northeast in 184 CE. Yellow Turbans eventually suppressed, but suppression destroys the Han. After the Yellow Turbans, the Han court has no power; last emperor put aside in 220 CE. o o o o o o 184 o ~ o o o o ~ [ H ᷪ 1 ~ " . " . .~ sK 0 One powerful warlord was Cao Cao o ; he controlled much of North China while claiming to serve the Han court. Han replaced by three competing dynasties, one of which was led by Cao Pi o , the son of Cao Cao. o oo o 155 o o 220 o 3 o 15 o o o o o o o o o o o o o X H ᷪ o . 1 e l K 0 ] " K " o 187 o o 226 o 6 o 29 o o Vv wL o o o y oo o X H ᷪ o h W ෪ o oo h W 1 220 o ^ W 1 o o To V ^ W 1 , In 220 CE, Cao Cao's son declared himself ruler of a new dynasty, Wei o Immediately challenged by two rivals, Wu o in the southeast and Shu o in the southwest All three states fairly stable, claim to inherit the Confucian legacy of the Han Wei overthrown by Sima o clan in 265, replaced by Jin o dynasty, which reunified China in 280 311: Jin capital of Luoyang sacked by steppe nomad invaders; Jin court fled to south and reestablished the dynasty (Eastern Jin) at Nanjing in 317 o o h W 1 o s K0 s K0 o 263 o o s K0 220 o h W 1 o o o o ~ s K0 [ H " " . " o "H 1 221 o o o s K0 " " o " " " 229 o ~ s K 0 " ` W " " " o "W 1 265~ o o o h W " o "W "o "W 280 ~ ~ 181 o o 234 o o p v wL w d wL " "" "S oo oo d o o o [ wL o o o o o o G 1 G Xiongnu o Invasion by the Xiongnu confederation is first mentioned in Chinese records in 201 BCE "Trading or Raiding" policy Early Han rulers favored policy of appeasement ("peace through marriage"o ) In 133 BCE, Emperor Wu turned instead to a policy of aggression and conquest After a period of expensive wars and peasant unrest, Han returns to policy of appeasement In Later Han, the Xiongnu tribes split A branch of the Xiongnu later crossed the steppe and invaded Europe (Huns) Remaining Xiongnu willing to be subordinate to the Han in return for tribute, but during periods of dynastic weakness return to raiding Xiongnu invade north China, sack the Jin capital at Luoyang in 311, do not start a new dynasty, but the north is lost to Chinese rule for three centuries Southern Dynasties; series of six dynastic houses that governed southern China (capital at modern Nanjing) from 317 to 589 Northern Dynasties: northern China overrun by steppe nomad invaders; most of North China brought under single ruler during the Northern Wei o (386-534) dynasty, founded by the Toba o Turks o o 420 o --589 o o o _ K 0 i wL sK 0 o oo oo oo 2 1 o oo oo oo o o o Nine Ranks 2 system: first used by Wei kingdom to rank candidates for office; later became a classification system by which the great clans obtained hereditary rights to government office 2 pvw L o~2 1 o ~2 o V vw L d wL " y " [d w L o oo , oo o "T " G 1 o G 1 Vv o dw L sK0 ~ sK0 2 1 on o d S . " o o o o "2 1 n n Sd Emperor Xiaowen o (r. 471-499) deliberately promoted policy of sinicization (convert Turks to Chinese lifestyle) Moved N. Wei capital to old Han capital of Luoyang in 494 Introduced Land Equalization system o of government-controlled landownership in 484 The Sino-Turkish elite Through intermarriage, a new elite emerges the Sino-Turkish elite Process of cultural accommodation on both sides, but more for the Turks who are a small minority in the empire they rule Turks adopt Chinese style of rule and cultural markers such as language and names By the 6th century the Northern Wei resembles a typical Chinese dynasty, albeit with a Sino-Turkish elite Fall of the Northern Wei Revolt of the Six Garrisons in 524: Turkish nobility of the steppe revolted against the imperial government of Northern Wei, accusing the rulers of abandoning the steppe traditions In 534 the Northern Wei dynasty fragmented into several competing kingdoms Introduction to Buddhism
1h H " The historical Buddha Sakyamuni (also known as Siddhartha Gautama) lived ca. 560-480 BCE Born into rich chieftain's family, but abandoned his station in life to pursue religious quest Achieved enlightenment at age 35 while sitting under a Bodhi tree near modern day Varanasi; took the name Buddha ("the awakened one") 2h H 1 Basic Concepts of Buddhist Religion Karma o : every act produces good or evil result; accumulation of karma determines stage of life in next reincarnationh H 1 Rebirth in one of six stages of existence: . 1 e lK0 ^ K o (1) Deity (2) Titan (3) Human (4) Animal (5) Preta(living dead) (6) Denizen of hell Four Noble Truths: all existence is suffering; goal is to overcome craving for sensual pleasure and achieve nirvana (cessation of existence) (o Four Noble Truthsh h ,o , Y " 3 Y Schism in Buddhist Teachings o Theravada (Hinayana): "Canonical" Buddhism; emphasized monastic vocation. o Four Noble Truths _ j " dm 9 h V hhh Theravada (Hinayana) o Mahayana ("Greater Vehicle" h ): All beings possess Buddhanature that endows them with capacity for enlightenment; promoted by the Indian king Asoka 7 Mahayana ("Greater Vehicle"h ): ~ s j " " ; p F m9 n m9 "9 " P nL m " " 1 G λ 1 sj" The Lotus Sutra ~ h Most important Mahayana scripture~W 1 -o PARABLE OF THE BURNING HOUSE Enunciates principle that there is a single Truth, but many means of achieving enlightenment Also argues that the Buddha is eternal; will appear in many forms to aid others seeking salvation Doctrine of expedience: use lesser or partial "truths" to guide people to enlightenment o Key Figures in the Lotus Sutra Avalokitesvara of the Perceiver of the World's Sounds (in Chinese, o ): bodhisattva of compassion; god/dess of mercy Many Treasures: extinct Buddha who vowed to reappear whenever Lotus is preached. Maitreya h : bodhisattva who receives prophecy that he will be reborn as a Buddha in the future The Three Vehicles- Hinayana, Mahayana and Tantrayana. (1) sravanka("voice-hearer"): receives instruction directly from the Buddha (2) pratyeka-buddha ("self-enlightened"): individual pursuit of salvation (=Theravada) (3) bodhisattva (pusa h ): delays entry to nirvana to aid others (altruistic self- sacrifice) The Arrival of Buddhism in China h (h G )o Arrives as early as 65 CE, welcomed at the Han court, but little more than a curiosity Key developments are translations of Buddhist texts such as the Scripture in Forty-two Sections (during the Later Han) and the Lotus Sutra (during the period of disunity) hP 1 During period of disunity, Buddhism is serious rival to Daoism hP Daoism during the Period of Division One form of Daoism was personal and mystical, best represented by texts such as the Zhuangzi; often called neo-Daoism Another form were organized religious groups such as the Way of the Celestial Masters recognized as the "official" Daoist church in 215 CE Daoism will compete with Buddhism during this era, often adapting Buddhist practices Obstacles to Buddhism in China Theravada monastic tradition unacceptable due to stress on filial piety Mahayana Buddhism, with stress on expedient means, could adapt to Chinese tradition do good works, increase the good karma of your ancestors Vimalakirtri becomes key figure; in Chinese accounts he is even wiser than Manjusri Lay Buddhist Practice Field of Reverence h : ritual acts (chanting scripture, pious conduct, obeying taboos like not taking life of sentient beings) Field of Compassion h : charitable acts Tiantai Buddhism (h ) Also called the Lotus School because of its emphasis on the Lotus Sutra Emphasis on syncretism, attempts to bring together Daoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism Direct response to the problem of the diversity of teachings, including a multiplicity of Mahayana teachings Would become a leading Buddhist sect by the Tang dynasty Pure Land Buddhism Pure Land h : based on an Indian scripture that prophesied the rebirth of a devout monk as the Amitabha Buddha h , who presides over a "western paradise" known as the Pure Land As a religious movement, Pure Land Buddhism was a purely Chinese invention based on Chinese tradition Becomes dominant Buddhist tradition in China and East Asia generally Savior Figures in Chinese Buddhism Avalokitesvara/Guanyin h "Perceiver of the World's Sounds"): a key figure in Lotus Sutra, later most closely identified with Pure Land tradition Maitreya h : the Future Buddha, who will preside over an earthly paradise.means the transformation from Buddha Ksitigarbha h (Bodhisattva of hell): bodhisattva who comes to the aid of those suffering in the underworld. Ten Kings of the hell: s j" 10 Sui Wendi(Yang Jian) Found of Sui Found by Yang Jian o , who rules as Emperor Wendi o of Sui (581-604) Yang was a product of the hybrid Chinese Turkic aristocracy of Northern Wei Came to power through coup (deposed and killed his own grandson) Complete the conquer of Southern China and reunified the empire in 589 Wen Di An activist Emperor Military: Establishes military colonies along the northern border Politics: Eliminates the nine ranks. Office holding no longer hereditary Law: Established a legal code Economics: Centralized resource with road, bridges, granary system, and the Grand Canal Military-agricultural colonies h The Equal-field system Z f 3p j " p Fm 9 n m 9 d w L ` Grand Canal the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. Core economic and agricultural region Its main role throughout its history was the transport of grain to the capital. Grand Canal at this time was not a continuous In the Sui, the Grand Canal ran from Yangzhou On the north bank of Yangtze River to the capital at Chang'An Three Teachings three teachings, known as the San Jiao ( o ,are considered to be Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism. The "Three Teachings Harmonious as One"h G o Prince Shotoku a regent and a politician of the Asuka period in Japan. he sent a mission to the Sui Dynasty In these years, China took the first steps toward to opening relations with Japano Sui Yangdi(Yang Guang) The second Sui Emperor, Yang Di, succeeded his father in 604 (possibly murdered his father and elder brother) Yang Di continue the centralization policies Sai Invasion of Koguryo Fearful of Alliance between the Turks and Koreans Found of Tang Li Yuan an aristocrat general of mixed Chinese Turkish ancestry, founded the Tang in 618 Li Yuan & Li Shiming ; " e l j " ^ h + ] j" d m9 @L sj " The Tang under Li Shimin (599-649) Li Shimin regularizes the administrative system of six ministries that the Sui had initiated Also a series of successful military campaigns Once stabilized, Tang sees rapid economic and demographic growth (as many as 300 million people under the Tang emperors) Social order codified and directed by the Tang government with genealogical records Empress Wu Empress Wu o Wife of the third Tang emperor; already power behind throne by 660s Six weeks after husband's death in 684 she deposed the designated successor and replaced him with another of her nephews Began to preside openly over the Tang court In 691 Empress Wu declared her own dynasty of Zhou o ; rules as Emperor Shengshen(o ) Defeats rebellions headed by a dismissed official and the Li clan Expands the exam system as a means of becoming an official Crowning achievements were in foreign policy; domestic rule often marked by reign of terror Tang restored in 705 The An Lushan Rebellion Xuanzong h reigned 712-156h Reign of Emperor Xuanzong o unprecedented prosperity & cultural efflorescence. Great age of poetry (Li Bo, Du Fu, and Meng Haoran) In his later years, Xuanzong retires from court life, becomes devoted to Yang o Guifei h is the wife of one of his sons. During the Tang, border issue is still and issue agricultural military colonies still exist, now in the hands of non-Chinese generals. An Lushan h , Tang general of Sogdian descent, was a favorite of Yang Guifeio As Emperor Xuanzong removes himself from court life, officials such as the new High Chancellor, Yang Guizhong, move against An Lushan An Lushan rebelled against the Tang in 755 An Lushan was assassinated in 757; but the rebellion continues, severely cripples the Tang dynasty Consequences of the An Lushan rebellion (1) Erosion of central government authority a) Rise of warlords on the local level b) Institutional Buddhism creates tax problems c) Demise of the Land Equalization (Well-Field) system of state landownership) (2) Aristocracy lost its dominance over government (3) Economic heartland of the empire shifted to South China (4) Intellectual reassessment of Buddhism and Confucianism Han Yu h and the Confucian Revival The first Neo-Confucian thinker, Han Yu used guwen (old-style writing) attack things he did not like Xenophobic rejection of foreign cultures, Buddhism Fundamentalist revival of Confucian values and institutions (rejected Han & Tang empires as proper models of government) Renaissance: rediscovery of antiquity and untarnished truth of Confucian classes (upheld Mencius as the genuine interpreter of Confucian philosophy) Buddhism in the Late Tang Han Yu and like-minded officials write memorials and essays to promote their views Although they never become the dominant group, their activities set the stage for later Neo-Confucian revival Some twenty years after the death of Han Yu, the Tang dynasty purges Buddhist monasteries Suppression short-lived, but Buddhism loses power The Tang-Song Transition and the rise of the exam system The fall of the Tang Military strong man eunuchs and Great Clans engage in constant struggle for power at court. Civil war in 880s between rival military leaders creates massive economics dislocation. Increasing numbers of peasant rebellions 903CE: Armies enter the capital, massacre several hundred eunuchs Final emperor puppet of military strongman final claimant to the throne killed in 907. The five Dynasty and tem Kingdoms After the fall of the Tang, China falls into a period of chaos lasting over 50 years. Dynasty( said to pass the Zhengtong o legitimate succession) mostly in the north, kingdons in the south. Zhao Kuangyin and Zhao Kuangyi: two brothers who were generals in one of the many south states 960: Zhao brothers overthrow their young emperor, proclaim the Song Dynasty. Rise of the Song 960-1279 While Song never reaches the geographic extent of the Tang, most if China under Song rule--population of about 100 million. The order to avoid being overthrown, Zhao brothers attempt to reestablish civilian bureaucratic rule. But both actual members and their information infrastructure(record of the great clans) gone Turn to "new" exam system, which creates a social and political transformation. The Exam system The concept of using exams to determine who was worthy of service introduce by Wudi. System expanded under Empress WU By the end of Tang, 1/4 of all official accepted through exam system. During Song, Exam system becomes dominant system of recruitment, although some official enter through recommendation or "Shadow Privilege"(Yin Privilege) Possible only because of elimination of Great Clans alongside technological advances Two tier systems becomes a three tier system a) Shengyuan (prefecture) b) Juren (provincial) c) Jinshi (national of metropolitan) Exam graduates eligible to be appointed to one of 20000 posts Social Effects if the Exam System Result in the rise of a new elite class--the gentry or literati (the Shi) Some group excluded from exam, but otherwise the gentry is an open class Four class social order: the gentry, peasants artisans, and merchants. But exam difficult: at each stage only 10% will pass (300000 will take exams at prefecture, only 300 will pass national exams) Literati and their families: 5-6% of population. Exams and Chinese Culture Exams created a focus for elite cultural life Preparing of exams and taking exams provides sense of self and community for elites Confucianism reestablished as official orthodoxy; Buddhism removed from political life Centrality of exam encourages the Shi to reexamine their role in society as well as the meanings of Confucianism. Some criticize the system: stifles creative thought, too difficult, no practical content. ...
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