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Sam Bingham933 WordsASTD 284: Foundations of East Asian CivilizationMing Foreign RelationsSecondary Source Analysis
1Ming dynasty was the last great dynasty in Chinese history to be ruled by Han Chinese descendants. It came after the barbarian rule of the Mongols, whom established the Yuan dynasty, and prior to another foreign rule in Qing China under the Manchurians. According to Fairbanks and Reischauer’s China: Tradition and Transformation, China returned to its Confucian governing principles under the direction of neo-Confucian scholars during the Ming, and endorsed what was considered to be traditionally of Chinese culture (Fairbanks & Reischauer, 42). The state focused and encouraged the agrarian cultural developments, and in establishing tributary relations that would exceed the Han, Tang, and Song dynasties. However, the Ming experienced difficulties in some diplomatic and foreign policy issues of its time. In Fairbanks and Reischauer’s China: Tradition and Transformation, it is evident that Ming China used neo-Confucian values to discourage commercial developments in favor of agrarian, and formed tributary relations in means to maintain of status quo in the region. The discouragement, or rather, the lack of support for commercialism was hampering to the Imperial finance of the Ming state. The devoid of support was firmly based in the neo-Confucian scholars’ favoritism towards the agrarian and its revenues from land tax (Fairbanks & Reischauer, 59). The traditional idea of self-sufficient state that resonated amongst Confucian scholars, severely confined the economic opportunities of the Ming state to solely domestic. This