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THE SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK
I'V Hit iiii iiu'hor 111 MAN SOCI1 IV IN I I I1IC.S AND POT Il'IC 1 -. M \v iiori : MIR A CIIAM.IM: WCIPI.H 'iiii iMPAci (>! SC.IKM:!- ON soc TI M AT IIIOKI1Y ANTi III]. INUIVIOI \l 1ILM\> KMU'IHH.I ! UN SCOPK ANH llMlls 1II^1CIK\ HI WI^IIRN PTTILOSCIIMI^ Till* I'KIM.Ii'l \ s (>]' MA I III MM ITS INT T?ODL C riON Id MATIfFMAl'ICAL PHILOSOPHY 1111- A \ALYMS OF MIND 01 II KNOWI MHil- 0|' MIL 1-XriRNM WOKLO AN 01 1J.INI. 01 PHILOSOPHY IIII PHILOSOPHY Of LLIBXI/ AN INQUIRY INTO MKANING ANU i'Rr F1I UNPOPULAR I SSAYS POWFR IX PRAI^: 01 inLTNI-SS Till C'lNf^I'L^r 01- H \PPIM SS SGLPI K:AL ESSAYS MYSTICISM AND LOGIC Till* sen \niic or [LOOK MARK1AC.1 A\J> MORMS MH CATION AM) IJIK SOCIAL OUPLR ON PDUCA I ION FP1 1 "OM AM* ORGANI/ATinX. l8l4-K)I}. I'PiXCIPI I S OF SOC'IAI RhCONM'RUC 1 JON KO \I)S TO l-Rh KDOM I i'. \C1U.L AND 1ULORY Ot BOLSHEVISM
BERTRAND RUSSELL THE SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK LONDON (JKC)R(iK AT,!. EN & U \\VIX I/I'D Rl'SKIN HOUSE MUSKl'M Sl'RI.l r
FBLISHED IN SECOND EDITION 1949 THIRD IMPRESSION 1954 This book is copyright under the Berne Convention. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes oj private study, research, criticism or review, as per- mitted under the Copyright Act 1911, no portion my be reproduced by any process without written . Enquiry should be made to the publisher. PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY UNWIN BROTHERS LTD., WOKINO AND LONDON
PREFATORY NOTE TO THE SECOND EDITION IN this edition I have made no important changes, but have corrected topical allusions which have become out of date. The material of the last few chapters may seem now more familiar than at the time of the first edition, since it has been popularized in two widely read books, Huxley's Brave New World and Burnham's Managerial Revolution. I do not suggest that my book had any influence on either of these, but the parallels are interesting, and will, I hope, persuade the reader that my fears are more than an individual phantasy.
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION page Q PART I. Scientific Knowledge -f I Examples of Scientific Method 1 5 JU-""Criaracteristics of Scientific Method 58 JJJ Limitations of Scientific Method 73 i3 Scientific Metaphysics '"$8 V Science and Religipn ,105 ^f ^^^^a .1 m . PART II. Scientific Technique VI Beginnings of Scientific Tprhniqu.^ j^j VII Technique in Inanimate Nature 150 III Technique in Biology 158 IX Technique in Physiology 170 X Technique in Psychology 178 XI Technique in Society 191 PART III. The Scientific Society XII Artificially Created Societies 209 XIJI The Individual and the \Vholpr 223 XIV Scientific Government f 235 XV Education in a Scientific Society 251 XVI Scientific Reproduction 259 2CVII -^firnrr and Vahws 269 INDEX 281
INTRODUCTION To say that we live in an age of science is a common- place, but like most commonplaces it is only partially true.
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