biol - Chemical Fundamentals{1.1 ATOMIC MODELS protons...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemical Fundamentals {1.1) ATOMIC MODELS - protons, electrons, neutrons, protons = positive charge, in the nucleus v neutrons = no charge,in the nucleus electrons = negative charge, orbiting the nucleus - Bohr Rutherford, Standard Atomic Notation, .a valence electrons and trends periodic tabl groups (t) and periods (—>), ram , Valence electrons — electrons located in the outermost orbital that determine an atom’s chemical bngQQur; elements of the same group contain the same number of valence electrons Fluorine Phosphorus Potassium Calcium - Compounds - definition Stable combinations of atoms of different elements held together by chemical bonds “ - Ionic Bond — definition, cations and anions (LEO and GER) LOSE electrons = cations, (LEO — lose electrons oxidation) GAIN electrons = anfOns (GER —' gain electrons reducfion) Ionic bond 7- ‘force of attraction between cations and anions lonic Compound — is called a salt or ionic solid - Covalent Bond - definition Covalent bond -— formed when atornsre one or more pairs of valence electrons; may share more than 1 pair of eiectrons resulting in double and triple bonds Covalent bonds are j than ionic bonds Covaient and tonic bonds 'generaily calle‘d rtolecular forces of attraction ' “‘“s‘t ACIDS, BASES and BUFFERS - Hydronium and hydroxide ions and effect on pH - pH scale - Neutralization reaction — definitiOn - Equifibrium -- definition - Buffers — definition, - carbonic acid -»— bicarbonate buffer - define -- other examptes buffers, within the body and synthetic ~* - l‘ntramolecular forces of attraction The covalent bond that holds the atoms of a molecule together, and the ionic bonds that hold ions together in a salt ISOTOPES - - Definition and eg. ofisotopes (provide standard atomic notation) Atoms of an element With the same atomic number but a different mass number. Since the atomic number is the same, the number of protons and electrons are the same. A difference in the number of neutrons in the nucleus distinguish-es 5"; Kiss, - Details of: 'l) rbo 2) Radioactive ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course BIOLOGY biology of taught by Professor Smit during the Fall '08 term at Windsor.

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biol - Chemical Fundamentals{1.1 ATOMIC MODELS protons...

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