NTR 450-Chapter 4 Notes - Nutrition During Pregnancy NTR 450 Chapter 4 Pregnancy Rapid growth and development Susceptibility to effects of many factors

NTR 450-Chapter 4 Notes - Nutrition During Pregnancy NTR...

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Nutrition During Pregnancy NTR 450 Chapter 4 Pregnancy Rapid growth and development Susceptibility to effects of many factors Diet/nutritional status Physical activity Medical conditions Medications Substance use Stress Time-related Terms Before, During, and After Pregnancy Review Illustration 4.1 Infant Mortality Deaths from birth to 1 year of age “Infant mortality is a mirror of a population’s physical health and socioeconomic status.” Decreases in mortality related to improvements in social circumstances, safe & nutritious food availability, & infectious disease control Infant Mortality Risk Factors Low birth weight 8.2% of births 66% of infant deaths Preterm delivery 12% of births 25% of neonatal deaths Reducing Infant Mortality and Morbidity Improve birth weight of newborns Desirable birth weight = 3500-4500 g (7 lb. 12 oz.-10 lb.)
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Infants born with desirable weight are less likely to develop: Heart and Lung diseases Diabetes Hypertension 2020 Health Objectives for the Nation Related to Pregnant Women and Infants Review Tab le 4.5 or link to Healthy People 2020 (on Blackboard) Physiology of Pregnancy Watch online video on BB – Week 3 Physiological Changes Increased plasma volume Increased maternal nutrient stores Placental development Increased uterine blood flow Fetal growth Normal Physiological Changes Review Table 4.8 Maternal Nutrient Metabolism Changes can be seen in the first few weeks after conception. Ensures that nutrients will be available to the fetus when needed. Changes occur to metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, fat, minerals and fasting metabolism Carbohydrate Metabolism Glucose is preferred fuel for fetus – changes ensure continuous supply “Diabetogenic effect of pregnancy” results from maternal insulin resistance Estrogen and progesterone increase insulin production Human chorionic somatotropin and prolactin inhibit conversion of glucose to glycogen/fat
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Fasting Metabolism Rapid conversion to glucogenic amino acid utilization, fat oxidation, and increased ketone production in fasting states Allows maternal utilization of fat for energy, sparing glucose for fetal use Protein Metabolism Greater need for N and protein to support growth Protein accumulation (about 925 g overall) Reduced N excretion and amino acid conservation (recycling) Needs must be met by mother’s intake of protein rather than stored protein Fat Metabolism Fat stores Accumulate in first half of pregnancy Enhanced fat mobilization in second half Increase in blood lipids and cholesterol-containing lipoproteins Triglycerides: fat mobilization Cholesterol: sex hormones and fetal cell membranes Increase in lipids carried by lipoproteins: carotenoids, fat-soluble vitamins
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