1 introduction - nerve cells and behavior - lecture slides

1 introduction - nerve cells and behavior - lecture slides...

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Introduction Neurophysiology University of Colorado at Boulder Department of Integrative Physiology
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Steps to Learning Goals ± Basic function of the nervous system Sensory systems important for movement 3 basic types of movements ± Basic characteristics of the nervous system Two types of cells in the nervous system How do neurons communicate information? Nature of neuronal signals & signal transduction ² Understanding neuronal function
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Recommended Reading ± From Kandel et al. (2000) Principles of Neuroscience Chapter 1: The Brain & Behavior, pp. 7-9 Chapter 2: Nerve Cells and Behavior, pp. 19-35 Chapter 4: The Cytology of Neurons, pp. 69-71; pp. 72-75; pp. 76-81, 85; pp. 85-86 Chapter 5: Synthesis and Trafficking of Neuronal Protein, pp.88-103
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Basic Function of Nervous System (1) ± Nervous system performs 3 basic functions: sensory input (sensation) via afferents (sensory receptors), integration (interpretation), & motor output (execution) via efferents .
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Sensory Receptor Systems for Movement (2) ± Vision ± Proprioception Vestibular system Kinesthetic system • Joint receptors • Cutaneous (skin) receptors heat, pain, pressure, vibration ² Muscle receptors Muscle spindle (stretch – Ia afferent ) ² Tendon receptors Golgi tendon organ (force – Ib afferent )
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3 Basic Types of Movement (3) ± Movement can be loosely classified into 3 basic categories: reflexive - involuntary, coordinated patterns of muscle contraction & relaxation triggered by sensory stimulus (stretch reflex, swallowing, coughing, blinking, sneezing) rhythmic - repeated patterns of activity (walking/locomotion, breathing) voluntary - under volitional (conscious) control; generated by cerebral cortex in response to a perceived need.
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Basic Function of Nervous System (4) ± Sensory information is important in reflex control of movement, & in control & monitoring of rhythmic & voluntary movement. central connections of afferents
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General structure of a typical neuron (5) Myelin other cells 1) 2) 3) 4) (Axon hillock) Spike initiating zone, Trigger zone
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Synapses (6) ± Neurons communicate with other cells (neurons & muscles) at synapses (excitatory, inhibitory). neurotransmitter (stored in vesicles) - chemical substance released by the presynaptic neuron that has an effect on the postsynaptic neuron
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± Neurons are connected to each other in a highly specific manner (= neural circuit ) that mediate specific behaviors. ± An example of a neural circuit that mediates a simple behavior is the knee jerk (patellar, tendon tap, (stretch)) reflex . ± Involves 2 divergent paths: z excite agonist (quadriceps) muscle z relax antagonist (hamstring) muscle ± Also involves 3 types of neurons. Neural Circuits (7)
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3 Basic Types of Neurons (8) Sensory Interneuron Motor neuron neuron innervate (afferent) (efferent)
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Neural Circuits (9) dorsal root monosynaptic polysynaptic ventral root
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Motor Neuron Activity (10) ± Motor neurons receive input from a lot of cells not shown in previous, simplified diagram: • sensory inputs – for ex., proprioceptive input
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1 introduction - nerve cells and behavior - lecture slides...

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