When Worlds CollideA look at changing relations between the natives, colonists, and environment.Early Contact➢Natives depicted as “savages” - no regard for complex cultures○Wood carving depicts horrific/unnatural stereotypes (i.e. burning of man,cannibalism, carrying weapons, etc.)➢1580s: England trying to plant colonies in Newfoundland and Roanoke. Both failed.○Tobacco is introduced to England, making a profitable boom in the next 30 years.■Tobacco cultivation requires a great deal of hand labor and exhausts thesoil quickly. The Virginia Company starts “headright grants” - awards oflarge plantations to wealthy colonists. This leads to massive immigration(agriculture = wealth).➢1607: London investors are issued a royal charter from King James I. Built firstpermanent settlement in North America. Looked for valuable resources to make profit.➢Chesapeake is home to approx. 14,000 Algonquian people (self-governing communities).The colonists hear the Indians are uncivil, lead by their lustful desires and “animal-like”impulses.○In reality, the Natives were bound by a sophisticated political system known asthe Powhatan Confederacy.➢The Jamestown colonists had come to find gold and passage to the Indies - failed bydrinking and gaming. They relied on the Powhatan community to carry them through thehard times.➢English expand and demand for food, this pushes the Powhatan community toward theedge. In the winter of 1609-10, starvation sets in and kills approx. 340 colonists,➢The Virginia Company wages war with the natives. Armed colonists attack villages, killingmany. They eventually capture Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontis (15 yrs.).➢By 1670, about six decades later, the Natives have lost approx. 12,000 of their own!War and disease have left them weak and few.○The English expand to 40,000 by this time.
Maryland & the “Proprietary Colony”:➢King Charles I granted 10 million acres in northern Cheasepeake to the Calvert family.This land was named Maryland and was settled in by many Catholics.➢Like Viriginia, Maryland relied on tobacco. Pressures for labor and expansion led theCalverts to adopt the system of “headright grants” to independent planters.The New England Colonies➢Tobacco is not easily grown here, as well as other cash crops. This area was far lessfavored for investment and settlement.➢Becomes a haven for Protestants from England.○Puritans were followers of John Calvin wished to purify and reform the Englishchurch. They were heavily persecuted by King James I but sought to revivecommunities with their core Christian beliefs.➢The coastal regions and inland areas around Connecticut were dominated by French andDutch traders/merchants.➢From 1616-1618, the Natives were ravaged by widespread disease. This epedemic wipedout many because they had no resistance to the illnesses [brought over].