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Unformatted text preview: Impaired Nighttime Sleep in Healthy Old Versus Young Adults Is Associated with Elevated Plasma Interleukin-6 and Cortisol Levels: Physiologic and Therapeutic Implications ALEXANDROS N. VGONTZAS, MANOLIS ZOUMAKIS, EDWARD O. BIXLER, HUNG-MO LIN, PAOLO PROLO, ANTONIO VELA-BUENO, ANTHONY KALES, AND GEORGE P. CHROUSOS Sleep Research and Treatment Center (A.N.V., E.O.B., A.V.-B., A.K.), Department of Psychiatry, and Health Evaluation Sciences (H.-M.L.), Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033; Pediatric and Reproductive Endocrinology Branch (M.Z., G.P.C.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences (P.P.), University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 IL-6 and TNF secretion is increased by sleep loss or restric- tion. IL-6 secretion progressively increases with age, yet its associationwithdecreasedqualityandquantityofsleepinold adults is unknown. This study examined the alteration of 24-h secretory pattern of IL-6, TNF , and cortisol in 15 young and 13 old normal sleepers who were recorded in the sleep labo- ratory for four consecutive nights. Serial 24-h plasma mea- sures of IL-6, TNF , and cortisol were obtained during the fourth day, and daytime sleepiness was assessed with the mul- tiple sleep latency test. Old adults, compared with young sub- jects, slept poorly at night (wake time and percentage stage 1 sleep were increased, whereas their percentage slow wave sleep and percentage sleep time were decreased, P < 0.05). Accordingly, their daytime sleep latency was longer than in young adults ( P < 0.05). The mean 24-h IL-6 and cortisol levels were significantly higher in old than young adults ( P < 0.05). In both groups, IL-6 and cortisol plasma concentrations were positively associated with total wake time, with a stronger association of IL-6 and cortisol with total wake time in the older individuals ( P < 0.05); their combined effect was addi- tive. IL-6 had a negative association with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep only in the young ( P < 0.05), but cortisol was associated negatively with REM sleep both in the young and old, with a stronger effect in the young. We conclude that in healthy adults, age-related alterations in nocturnal wake time and daytime sleepiness are associated with elevations of both plasma IL-6 and cortisol concentrations, but REM sleep de- cline with age is primarily associated with cortisol increases. ( J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88: 20872095, 2003) S LEEP DISTURBANCE IS one of the most frequent health complaints of older adults (1, 2). Indeed, old age is associated with increased wake time, minimal amount of deep slow-wave sleep (SWS) and declining rapid eye move- ment (REM) sleep (35). SWS decreases sharply from early adulthood to midlife, whereas wake time increases and REM sleep declines by about 30 and 10 min, respectively, per decade from midlife to late life (6). In addition to the age- related sleep changes, earlier studies supported the common...
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course SOC 170 taught by Professor Anderson during the Fall '07 term at UCLA.
- Fall '07