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Midterm I Review - Animal Anatomy Midterm I General...

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Animal Anatomy Midterm I General Organization Vertebrae: Cervical; thoracic; lumbar; sacral; caudal Tissues 1. Epithelium: covers body/organ surfaces. Lines body cavities. Forms glands. Very cellular, has a free surface, avascular, highly regenerative. 2. Connective tissue: Binds/supports/protects other tissues. Tendon, ligaments, bone, & mesentery. a. Consists of a few cells imbedded in a matrix of their own production b. Protection and leverage c. Serves to connect tissues from one another. 3. Muscles: Moves body and materials inside the body. 4. Nervous: Conducts incoming/outgoing stimuli. Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves. Types of connective tissues 1. Elastic tissue: Contains kinked fibers that regain their shape after being stretched. 2. Collagenous tissue: Individual cells called fibroblasts produce collagen fibers with tensile strength. Organization of connective tissues 1. Dense regular: Fibers arranged in parallel bundles, forming bands or cords (tendons and ligaments) 2. Dense irregular: Thick mat with fibers running in different directions (dermis) Epidermis 1. Stratum basale: The deepest layer. Single sheet of cuboidal to columnar cells capable of cell division. 2. Stratum spinosum (spiny layer): Composed of polyhedral cells. 3. Stratum granulosum: Composed of squamos cells in stages of degeneration. Involved in forming keratin. 4. Stratum lucidum: May or may not be present. Composed of flat, dead squamos cells. Contains eleidin which becomes keratin. 5. Stratum corneum (horny layer): The outermost layer. Consists of flat, dead, cornified cells completely filled with keratin. (Keratin: a waterproofing protein) Dermis Layer of skin directly below the epidermis, separated by a basement membrane. Consists of collagenous and elastic connective tissue containing blood vessels, nerve fibers, glands and hair follicles. 1. Papillary layer: Immediately below the epidermis. Dermal papillae increases surface area and hold dermis and epidermis together. [Looping blood vessels, nerve endings] 2. Reticular layer: Deeper layer. Responsible for skin thickness. [ Hair follicles, sebaceous & o Hypodermis
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Layers of connective tissue that connects skin to bones and muscles. AKA Superficial fascia. Glands Sebaceous: Secretes sebum, an oily substance that lubricates hair shaft and prevents excessive drying. Sweat: Merocrine- connect to the skin Apocrine- empty out into hair follicles Mammary: Consists of mamma and teats. Accessory structures: Horns, hooves, claws, hair, chestnuts, ergots Horns: Not sex linked, epidermal structures, not shed. Antlers: Sex linked, bone, shed annually Bone Composition 1. Organic: Osteoblasts secrete the organic matrix including collagen and elastin fibers When they become surrounded by the matrix, they are called osteocytes.
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