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Midterm II Review

Midterm II Review - EXAM II Review Hematopoietic System...

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EXAM II Review Hematopoietic System Blood a. Carry nutrients, O2, CO2,  Hormones, waste products b. Temperature control c. Clotting prevents blood loss d. Defense against disease Elements of Blood 1. Erythrocytes (Red blood cells) a. Transport O2 (with hemoglobin) b. In adults, forms in red bone marrow c. In fetus, produced by liver, spleen, and lymph nodes 2. Platelets (thrombocytes) a. Fragments of megakaryocytes, large cells formed in bone marrow b. Important in blood clotting: adheres to vessel walls and to each other 3. Leukocytes (White blood cells) a. Nucleated b. Capable of independent movement c. Classification: Granulocytes v. Agranulocytes Granulocytes: Neutrophils, Eosinophils,  Basophils Agranulocytes: Monocytes, Lymphocytes Neutrophils: First line of defense against infection; migrate to infected area, engulf bacteria Also degrade dead tissue, resulting in  pus Number increase when acute infection present Eosinophils: Number increase in case of chronic disease (parasites/allergies) Amoeboid, somewhat phagocytic Detoxify foreign proteins Basophils: Contain blue-staining granules Rare in normal blood Contain  heparin,  an anti-coagulant Released in areas on inflammation to prevent clotting Monocytes: Largest white blood cells- phagocytic When they enter tissues, they develop into  macrophages Lymphocytes: Variable in size and appearance Respond to antigens by forming  antibodies Hemopoiesis The formation of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets All blood cells in the adult originate from primordial stem cells in bone marrow Erythropoisis & Leukopoiesis
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Plasma Fluid portion of blood Kidneys responsible for maintaining constant proportions of water Protein: albumin & globulin Alpha & beta (including fibrinogen) globulins made in liver Gamma globulins (containing antibodies) made by lymphocytes when stimulated by antigens Essential part of blood-clotting mechanism  Albumin: Most abundant protein in plasma Binds and transports substances in blood Help in keeping fluid in vascular system Other constituents: Organic Lipids, cholesterol, hormones, enzymes, non-potein Nitrogen material (amino acids, waste products of metabolism) Other constituents: Inorganic Chlorides, carbonates, sulfates, phosphates Serum Plasma without fibrinogen and most clotting factors Contain antibodies Lymph When Excess tissue fluid not absorbed by the blood capillaries is picked up by lymphatics Clear colorless fluid May contain few RBCs and lymphocytes, inorganic salts, glucose, etc Chyle: milky lymph containing lipids derived from intestines during digestion Filtrates of blood: Cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, peritoneal & pleural fluid, aqueous humor, perilymph &  endolymph
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