Final review

Final review - Animal Anatomy Final Cardiovascular system...

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Animal Anatomy Final Cardiovascular system Pulmonary: low pressure to lungs Systematic: high pressure circulation to body Layers: Fibrous pericardium -> Parietal pericardium -> Pericardial space -> Epicardium -> myocardium ->  endocardium  Arteries: Thick and elastic walls; contain smooth muscle; smallest arteries: arterioles  Capillaries: smallest working unit of blood vessels; connect arterioles to venules Venules: small veins Veins: much larger in diameter, no muscle, thin walls, but have valves Aorta: Largest artery in the body; Ascending, arch, descending Thoracic: Runs to the diaphragm, supplies blood to thoracic cavity Dorsal intercostal arteries: supplies blood to spinal cord and spinal nerve roots Abdominal: Begins at aortic hiatus of diaphragm and ends at the split of two legs. Supplies blood to  abdominal and pelvic area Right brachial, Left subclavian, Carotids, Hepatic, Cranial/Caudal mesenteric, Renal, Ovarian/Testicular,  External/internal iliac, Femoral Jugular, axillary, brachial, subclavian, Vertebral veins Caudal vena cava: receives blood from lower extremities, pelvis, and abdomen Hepatic, renal, testicular/ovarian, femoral, iliac veins Hepatic portal vein: transports venous blood from capillary beds of intestines to the liver Lymphatic vessels: carries extracellular fluid and is dumped into the vena cava. Lymph is filtered by lymph nodes Fetal Circulation Lungs are collapsed during fetal development. Blood pumped from heart through the pulmonary artery  toward the lungs is shunted into the aorta by ductus arteriosus. Within the first week of life the ductus arteriosus  closes completely and becomes ligamentum arteriosum A second shunt, the foramen ovale is an opening between the right and left atria. Blood flows through it  (right to left) bypassing the lungs, until birth when change in pressure closes the valve Urinary (renal) System Functions: Maintain water balance by removing excess fluid Remove waste products by filtering blood Maintain normal blood chemistry Produce hormones eg. Renin which helps regulate blood pressure Located outside the peritoneal cavity; Lobulated organ in the ox. Right kidney more cranial  Anatomy:  Renal pelvis: wide origin of the ureter
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course ANSC 211 taught by Professor Black during the Spring '06 term at Maryland.

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Final review - Animal Anatomy Final Cardiovascular system...

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