CHM2046L.LabReport2ROUGHDRAFT - 5470 Project 3 Kidney...

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5470 Project 3: Kidney Stones Sakib - Section 906 CHM 2046L March 29, 2016
Introduction: Nephrolithiasis, or kidney stones, are caused by the forming together of acidic salts and hard mineral deposits in urine. Kidney stones form when urine contains more crystal-forming substances — such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid — than the fluid in your urine can dilute . 1 Kidney stones may also be formed due to the lack of substances that prevent crystals from forming together. These kidney stones must be passed at some point through the urinary tract, which is very painful. Since these stones come in all shapes and sizes, many people use home remedies to help dissolve them so that passing them is less painful. Unfortunately, some stones are so large that they have to be surgically removed because even the home remedies are not enough to completely dissolve them. The chance of a woman getting a kidney stone is much lower than that of a man’s, mostly because kidney stones’ likeliness increases when an individual has/had diabetes, high blood pressure, or is/was obese due to their bodies having calcium buildups. Calcium is a leading cause for the crystallization of kidney stones. In this lab, students used different chemical compounds to create kidney stones to help understand how kidney stones crystallize and form along with the rate at which they are capable of forming. Three different types of stones were made; calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate. One these stones synthesized and were completely crystallized as they would be if inside the body, students used home remedies to see what substances best dissolved the stones. The more the home remedy dissolves of a kidney stone, the easier it will be for that kidney stone to pass through the urinary tract and the less people have to take medication to get rid of their painful kidney stones.
Methods: First, it is important to gather all required materials for the experiment. These materials include: general glassware, lemon juice, vinegar, hydrochloric acid, EDTA, CaCl 2 , Na 2 C 2 O 4 , Ca ( NO ) 32 , Na 3 PO 4 , and of course all safety materials necessary. First, 4.33 grams of CaCl2 was dissolved in 10 mL of water and 5.23 grams of Na2C2O4 was dissolved in 10 mL of water and these mixtures were then combined to form a solid precipitate. These created the calcium oxalate kidney stones. Then, 7.935 grams of Ca(NO3)2 was dissolved in 10 mL of water and 5.285 grams of Na3PO4 was dissolved in 10 mL of water

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