5 Neural Signals 3 - Basics of synaptic transmission - converting action potentials into synaptic

5 Neural Signals 3 - Basics of synaptic transmission - converting action potentials into synaptic

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Unformatted text preview: Signaling Within & Between Nerve Cells Basics of Synaptic Transmission - onverting Action Potentials into Synaptic Potentials Neurophysiology University of Colorado at Boulder Department of Integrative Physiology Steps to Learning Goals ¡ 2 types of synaptic transmission: electrical & chemical ¡ Basics of chemical transmission - nerve-muscle synapse (neuromuscular junction) as a model • synthesis & storage of neurotransmitter • mechanisms for neurotransmitter release • mechanisms for postsynaptic response • stopping neurotransmitter actions ¡ Some differences between neuromuscular and central synapses • knee jerk reflex as an example of a central synapse ¡ Some diseases & toxins affecting synaptic transmission – what happens when things don’t work they way they’re supposed to? Recommended Reading ¡ From Kandel et al. (2000) Principles of Neuroscience • Chapter 10: Overview of Synaptic Transmission, pp. 175-185 • Chapter 11: Signaling at the Nerve-Muscle Synapse- Directly Gated Transmission, pp. 187-202 • Chapter 12: Synaptic Integration, pp. 207-209, 211-219, 222- 227 • Chapter 14: Transmitter Release, pp. 253-258, 262-273, 276- 277 • Chapter 15: Neurotransmitters, pp. 282, 285-286, 290, 294-296 • Chapter 16: Diseases of Chemical Transmission at the Nerve- Muscle Synapse: Myasthenia gravis, pp.298-300, 306-308 Synaptic Transmission (1) ¡ There are 2 basic types of synapses: • electrical • chemical Electrical Synapses (2) ¡ Gap junctions connect pre- & post-synaptic cells with gap-junction channels. Electrical Synapses (3) ¡ Provide nearly instantaneous signal transmission due to direct current flow from one cell to next • almost no synaptic delay • typically large -> small process Electrical Synapses (4) ¡ Most electrical synapses will transmit both depolarizing & hyperpolarizing currents & this can occur in both directions ( bi-directional synapse ). • However, some electrical synapses are rectifying . Why use gap junctions? (5) ¡ fast speed of propagation ¡ synchronize activity in cells ¡ transmission of metabolic signals between cells Chemical Synapses (6) ¡ Gap between cells of 20-40nm ( synaptic cleft ). ¡ Involves release of neurotransmitter by presynaptic cell ( exocytosis ). ¡ Neurotransmitter crosses gap & binds to receptor in postsynaptic cell. • Receptors are membrane- spanning proteins with an externalized region for binding the transmitter. • Receptors execute an effector function in the target cell. Chemical Synapses (7) ¡ Postsynaptic receptors have specificity (like a lock & key). • There is a specific receptor for acetylcholine, another for dopamine, another for norepinephrine, etc....
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2008 for the course IPHY 4720 taught by Professor Casagrand during the Fall '07 term at Colorado.

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5 Neural Signals 3 - Basics of synaptic transmission - converting action potentials into synaptic

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