Bio3.28.2 - Human Digestive System The Mouth Start of digestion Teeth Salivary glands-salivary analayse Tongue Esophogus The Stomach Expandable

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Human Digestive System The Mouth •Start of digestion •Teeth •Salivary glands-salivary analayse •Tongue Esophogus The Stomach •Expandable muscular sac •Food storage •Mechanical digestion •Chemical digestion-primarily in the form of protein digestion Chyme •Thick, acidic liquid Small Intestine •Longest part of digestive track •Chemical digestion -Digestive enzyme secretions -Liver -Pancreas -Small intestine •Absorption -Huge surface area -Villi -Microvilli -Segmentation movements •Diffusion ªActive transport •Capillaries
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•Lymph capillary Liver •Produces bile -Bile salts, water cholesterol -Start breakdown of lipids -Stored and concentrated in gallbladder Pancreas •Produces pancreatic juice -Neutralize chyme -Amylase -Lipase -Proteases -Nucleases Small Intestine •Lined by cells that complete digestion via membrane-bound enzymes -Peptidases -Disaccharidases -Lactose intolerance Large Intestine •Shorter annd wider than small intestine •Two parts 1. Colon 2. Rectum •Two functions •Absorption -Vitamins -Water -Diarrhea -Constipation •Compaction
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-Remaining materials compacted into feces -Indigestible wastes and dead bacteria Appendicitis •Inflammation of the appendix •Abdominal pain on right side •fever •Nausea •Appendectomy Colorectal Cancer •Third most common type of cancer •Usually develop from polyps •Change in bowel haabits •Weight loss •Pain •Colonoscopy Digestive Specializations •Omnivores •Carnivores •Herbivores Dental Adaptations •Carnivores -Enlargesd canines -Sharp-edged premolars and molars •Herbivores -Reduced canines _Wide, flat premolars and molars Intestinal Adaptations ªHerbivores have longer intestines •Carnivores have shorter intestines •Frog Ruminants
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•cows, sheep, goats, camels •Regurgitation and re-chewing •Multi-chambered stomachs •Symbiosis with microorganisms Birds •Lack teeth •Crops •Stomach •Gizzard Conclusions •Ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination: where are carbohydrates/fats/proteins broken down? •major organs of digestive tract -Order -Functions
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Nutrition •Process of acquiring and processing nutrients into a usable form •Nutrients -Substance acquired from the environment and needed for the survival, growth, and development of an organism -Supplied by our diet Diet •Satisfy three needs -Raw materials for organic molecules -Energy -Essential nutrients ª Six major categories of nutrients Energy •Cellular respiration •Energy in nutrients measure in calories •calorie -Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree C •Calorie -Kilocalorie (1000 calories) Basal Metabolic Rate •Number of Calories a resting animal requires to fuel essential processes •Females: 1,300 - 1,500 Calories/day •Males: 1,600 - 1,800 Calories/day Essential nutrients •Materials that cannot be made by organism from raw materials
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•Must be obtained in pre-assembled form •Malnourished -Missing one or more essential nutrients -Lipids -Carbohydrates
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course BIO 301L taught by Professor Wandelt during the Fall '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Bio3.28.2 - Human Digestive System The Mouth Start of digestion Teeth Salivary glands-salivary analayse Tongue Esophogus The Stomach Expandable

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