bio2.12 - Insertions or Deletions •Additions or losses of...

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The last amino acid is the one before that Translation •In the mRNA •In the nucleus •Goal: make a protein Use these ‘players’ •Start at: AUG start codon •Basic principle: complementary base pairing •end up with protein, have _________ that can be reused TACGGCTCCGCGTAAATC 1. Transcribe- make RNA T-A A-U C-G G-C complementary base pairing 2. Translate 3’TACGGCTCCGCGTAAATC5’ 5’AUGCCGAUUCGCAUUUAG3’ UACGGCUCCGCGUAA Proline Lecucine Arginine Stop Mutations are changes in the genetic material of a cell Point mutations are changes in just one base pair of a gene Base pair-substitutions Base pair insertions or deletions The relplacement of one nucleotide and its partner with another pair of nucleotides •Silent mutations -No effect on encoded protein/function •Missense mutations Result in a different amino acid that causes problems •Nonsense muatations -Result in a premature stop codon (the worst)
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Unformatted text preview: Insertions or Deletions •Additions or losses of nucleotide airs in a gene •Frameshift mutations •Every amino acid after mutation is wrong •Spontaneous mutations-Can occur during DNA replications, recombination, repair •Mutatgen-induced mutations-Mutagens: physical and chemical agents that interact with DNA in ways that cause mutations (ex. UV, X-Ray, Carcinogens)-------------------------End of exam material-------------------------Conclusions •Flow of Genetic Information •RNA-compared to DNA _Types/functions •Transcriptions-Compared to DNA replication: enzymes, location, end products •Translation-Players, location, end products •Mutations 30 Multiple choice Questions & 1) SA answer questions Pencil, pen, student ID •Compare contrast! 1 similarity & 1 difference...
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