8 - Modulation of Neural Signals – adaptability & plasticity in the nervous system - lec

8 - Modulation of Neural Signals – adaptability & plasticity in the nervous system - lec

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Signaling Within & Between Nerve Cells Modulation of neuronal signals – adaptability & plasticity in the nervous system Neurophysiology University of Colorado at Boulder Department of Integrative Physiology
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Steps to Learning Goals ± Plasticity in the nervous system ± Metabotropic receptors & 2 nd messengers Modulation of ion channels Sensory transduction involving metabotropic receptors & 2 nd messengers ± Modulation of neuronal signals - altering neuronal properties Amount of transmitter released Responsiveness of ionotropic receptors Function of leakage and voltage-gated channels ± Examples of brain plasticity
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Recommended Reading ± From Kandel et al. (2000) Principles of Neuroscience Chapter 13: Modulation of Synaptic Transmission- Second Messengers, pp. 229-231, 240-243, 250-251 Chapter 14: Transmitter Release, pp. 274-276 Chapter 21: Coding of Sensory Information, pp. 416 Chapter 26: Visual Processing by the Retina • pp. 510-515 (phototransduction) Chapter 32: Smell & Taste – The chemical senses • pp. 625-630; fig. 32-5 • pp.636-642; fig. 32-14
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Modulation of Neuronal Activity (1) ± The synaptic connections between neurons provide the basic ‘wiring’ of the brain’s circuitry. Synaptic connectivity between neurons is dynamic - it is constantly changing in response to neural activity & other influences. ± Thus, the nervous system is said to be “plastic” or changeable; the activity of neurons and the connections between neurons are not fixed, but can change and be adapted ( synaptic plasticity ) . ± Many changes that underlie synaptic plasticity are due to activation of 2 nd messenger systems.
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Metabotropic Receptors & 2 nd Messengers (2) ± Metabotropic receptors are not directly linked to their effector & act by altering intracellular metabolic reactions, such as stimulating production of second messengers Metabotropic receptors are involved in some forms of sensory transduction (for ex., olfactory, visual), as well as in modulation of synaptic transmission
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Second Messengers (3) ± In contrast to ~100 substances that can act as transmitters, there are only a few known second messengers. ± Nongaseous second messengers cyclic AMP (cAMP) • produced from ATP by enzyme adenylyl cyclase cGMP • produced from GTP by guanylyl cyclase inositol triphosphate (IP 3 ) & diacylglycerol (DAG) • produced from membrane lipid molecules by enzyme phospholipase C arachidonic acid
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8 - Modulation of Neural Signals – adaptability & plasticity in the nervous system - lec

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