Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 Carbohydrates(Sugars Starches&...

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Chapter 4: Carbohydrates (Sugars, Starches, & Fibers)
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Study Guide
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Introduction Brain Glucose Muscles Glucose Glycogen Fat “Fattening” – mistaken thinking True: concentrated sugars found in soft drinks, candies, cookies False: whole grains, vegetables, legumes
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Carbohydrates: Characteristics 1. Principal dietary carbohydrates Sugar Starch Fiber 2. All carbohydrates are composed of Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen CHO 3. All provide 4kcal/gram of energy if digestible .
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Carbohydrates: Characteristics 4. Found primarily in plant foods Typically vegetarian diets are high in CHO Major exception includes cow’s milk (lactose) 5. Plants store energy as sugar or starch Sugar Cane 6. CHO is manufactured by plants by the process of photosynthesis: Carbon Dioxide + water → Glucose + Oxygen 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
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Carbohydrates: Foods (High to Low concentration of CHO) Jam Fruit Corn Flakes Rice Bread Noodles/Pasta Oatmeal Peas Broccoli Beans French Fries Potato Chips Milk Meat LOW HIGH
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CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF CARBOHYDRATES Glucose can exist in both a straight-chain and ring form
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Carbohydrates: Structure 1. Monosaccharides – 1 glucose or sugar unit 2. Disaccharides – 2 glucose or sugar units 3. Polysaccharides – many glucose units (also called complex carbohydrates) SIMPLE CHO
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c ontain three to seven carbon atoms Most common = 6 carbon atom MONOSACCHARIDES blood sugar corn sugar Glucose/Dextrose Dairy products Galactose Major source of energy (ATP) Honey Fruits Root Vegetables Sweetest Sugars Fructose
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Also pentoses, 5-carbon chain, e.g. ribose and xylose Not a big part of the diet MONOSACCHARIDES building block for hemicellulose , which comprises about 30% of plant matter comprises the backbone of RNA Naturally occurring monosaccharides account for about 10% of dietary CHO in fruits, vegetables, and milk.
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Maltose Glucose Glucose DISACCHARIDES “two sugars combine” Two monosaccharide rings joined by a glycosidic linkage α(1→4) linkage (germinating cereals, i.e. barley process of brewing beer) Lactose (milk sugar) Glucose Galactose β(1→4) linkage Sucrose (table sugar) Glucose Fructose α(1) β(2) linkage
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Condensation Links two monosaccharide's together Hydrolysis Breaks a disaccharide in two DISACCHARIDES
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Starch energy storage for plants major food source for human beings POLYSACCHARIDES (1-4) (1-4) (1-4) (1-4) Glycogen functions as secondary short-term energy storage for animal cells made primarily by the liver and muscles important energy storage for athletes (many glucose molecules) Fiber Indigestible polysaccharide consists of non-starch polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans , cellulose , and many other plant components such as resistant dextrins , inulin , lignin , waxes , chitins , pectins , beta-glucans , and oligosaccharides .
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POLYSACCHARIDES: STARCH Found in numerous foods Dietary starch is composed of many glucose (maltose) units – 2,000-26,000 units
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