9 - Control of motor Units and Spinal Reflexes Lecture slides

9 - Control of motor Units and Spinal Reflexes Lecture slides

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Unformatted text preview: Action and Movement Spinal Control of Motor Units & Spinal Reflexes Neurophysiology University of Colorado at Boulder Department of Integrative Physiology Course Learning Goals ¡ Specifically, students should be able to: 1) predict & explain how the flow of ions across the nerve cell membrane can produce & influence the signals used in the nervous system to communicate information (both within & between neurons) 2) predict & explain how information in the nervous system is converted from one type of signal/information to another, & how the properties of neurons can influence this process 3a) predict & explain how the properties of individual neurons, & the types & patterns of connections between neurons, can influence activity in the nervous system, & how these b) can influence behaviors, as demonstrated through three basic types of movement, & c) can be adjusted, adapted or altered to suit the changing needs of an organism. Steps to Learning Goals ¡ Reflexive movements – an overview ¡ Sensory receptors and movement ¡ Control theories & strategies ¡ Muscle proprioceptors and reflex responses ¡ Interneurons and reflex circuits ¡ Adaptability of reflexes Recommended Reading ¡ From Kandel et al. (2000) Principles of Neuroscience • Chapter 36: Spinal Reflexes, pp. 713-735 Movement (1) ¡ Movement can be loosely classified into 3 categories: ¢ reflexive - involuntary, coordinated patterns of muscle contraction & relaxation triggered by sensory stimulus (stretch reflex, swallowing, coughing, blinking, sneezing) • rhythmic - repeated patterns of activity (walking/locomotion, breathing) • voluntary - under volitional (conscious) control; generated by cerebral cortex in response to a perceived need. Basic Function of Nervous System (2) ¡ Reflexes provide rapid responses to perturbations. Reflexes (3) ¡ Circuits controlling spinal reflexes are located in spinal cord. • these circuits also participate in more complex, voluntary movements Input from sensory receptors (muscles, joints & skin) Reflexes (4) ¡ Most input to α-motor neurons comes from interneurons in spinal cord (local circuit neurons). • These interneurons are networked together to allow coordinated motor programs to be generated. • They also receive input from sensory neurons, descending supraspinal inputs, motor neurons & other local circuit interneurons. ¡ For example, reflexes can operate across joints & limbs, such as flexion-withdrawal & crossed-extension reflexes . • maintenance of posture (ability to stand upright automatically against gravity) Organization for Movement (5) ¡ Information comes into nervous system • visual, auditory, vestibular, somatosensory (kinesthetic), gustatory, olfactory ¡ Decision is made about what, if anything, to do • brain, spinal cord ¡ Movement executed, if appropriate • reflexive • rhythmic • voluntary Sensory Receptor Systems for Movement (6) ¡ Vision ¡ Proprioception • Vestibular system • Kinesthetic system...
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9 - Control of motor Units and Spinal Reflexes Lecture slides

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