Biol. 1001 Lesson 2

Biol. 1001 Lesson 2 - Biol. 1001 Jonathan Morris 639173...

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Biol. 1001 Jonathan Morris 639173 Lesson 2: The Molecules of Cells 1) Circle and identify the functional groups in each. 2) Explain what makes organic compounds so versatile; give specific examples. Organic compounds are versatile because the central atoms in organic molecules are carbon. Carbon has 4 outer shell electrons that give it the ability to branch with other atoms in up to four covalent bonds. Which atoms carbon bonds with and how many bonds it forms determine the structure of the molecule, which in turn controls the molecule functionality. Take for example 1- butane and 2- butane. They both have the molecular formula C 4 H 8, but differ in their functionality because of the placement of the double bond changes the shape of the molecule. The versatility in organic compounds is also seen through the differences a molecule can have in carbon skeletons, or chain of carbon atoms. Carbon atoms can be branched or unbranched. An example is butane and isobutane; both have the same chemical formula, but because isobutane branched and butane is branched they have functions. They could also be arranged in rings like the liquid benzene. 3) How do dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis build monomers into polymers and vice versa? Use a diagram in your explanation. Dehydration is a process that removes a water molecule. In unlike monomers they are hydroxyl groups, which are OH, and hydrogen atoms at either end. When combining monomers the hydrogen atom combines with the hydroxyl group to form water, which is then removed from the chain. Here is a diagram to help:
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Biol. 1001 Jonathan Morris 639173 Hydrolysis is basically the reverse of the dehydration process. You break the bond of the monomers by adding water to them. A hydrogen atom bonds to one of the monomer and a hydroxyl group bonds to the other. Here is a diagram of hydrolysis: Both of these processes require the help of enzymes. 4) Carbohydrate Example Function Monosaccharides Glucose Main fuel molecules for cellular work; used as raw materials to make other organic compounds Disaccharides Sucrose The main carbohydrate in plant that is nourishes all the parts of the plant Polysaccharides Starch A storage polysaccharide in the roots and other tissues of plants 5) List the seven classes of proteins and give an example of each. Structural Protein – hair Contractile Proteins – found in muscles
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Biol. 1001 Jonathan Morris 639173 Defensive proteins – antibodies of immunes system Signal Proteins – hormones that help communication between cells Transport Proteins – hemoglobin in red blood cells Storage Proteins – ovalbumin Enzyme - Lactase 6) List the four levels of protein structure and explain the importance of each in the function of the protein. Primary Structure – This structure is the unique sequence of amino acids.
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Biol. 1001 Lesson 2 - Biol. 1001 Jonathan Morris 639173...

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