09_ATPRecovered

09_ATPRecovered - ATP ATP allows the pitcher to throw a...

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ATP allows the pitcher to throw a fastball. ATP
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All biological activities require energy in the form of a chemical molecule. This molecule is ATP, adenosine triphosphate which is composed of the following chemical structure. The major cast of characters is the following: Adenosine composed of Adenine and ribose and three phosphate groups: alpha, beta and gamma. ATP belongs to the family of nucleotides which also include DNA and RNA. In addition, the basic structure of nucleotides forms the basis for NAD, NADP, FAD, all compounds that are involved in producing indirectly ATP. How is the energy contained in ATP utilized by the cell? The simple answer is that the energy transmission occurs when ATP is cleaved by water. This process is called ATP hydrolysis. The energy released by ATP hydrolysis drives biochemical reactions that would not otherwise occur. ATP Figure 1: ATP
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Figure 3: ATP hydrolysis causes protein structure change. Figure 2: Energy Reaction in a Cell As an example, in the brain there is a molecule, glutamate which causes the cells to become excitable. Glutamate has to be converted to Glutamine which is not excitatory to the cells. How does this occur? glutamate + NH4+ -----X-----à glutamine (disfavored reaction) But coupled with ATP hydrolysis, it is made to go forward glutamate + ATP + NH4+ --------à glutamine + ADP + Pi (favored reaction) Figure two demonstrates the fundamental point about ATP. It combines with two products that normally would not get together and promotes their interaction so that the chemical reaction will occur. In some sense, ATP is like a chemical matchmaker! (In real life, a matchmaker finds a date for a person with the idea that they will get married. There is a great play by the same name. ) But in this case, the two need to come together to form a new molecule. Another example is given below to drive this point home. So how does ATP change the thermodynamics of the equation? In
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09_ATPRecovered - ATP ATP allows the pitcher to throw a...

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