GlycolysisPrint

GlycolysisPrint - Glycolysis Glycolysis provides energy for...

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Glycolysis provides energy for cells in the body. Glycolysis
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Overview of Cellular Respiration - ATP, Heat To garner energy for all our actions, food must be broken down allowing hydrogen ions and electrons to be transferred into ATP. Later in the course, how the glucose enters the cell will be presented. In short, the glucose must travel from the intestine, to the liver and then to the heart. The glucose is delivered to all cells by way of the blood in conjunction with various hormones such as insulin and adrenalin which promotes the entry of the glucose into the cell. As you read this module, keep in mind that the cell is close to a capillary and is properly hydrated. Finally, and most importantly, as the various chemical processes are presented, remember that each step requires one or more protein enzymes for these steps. The enzymes in the cytoplasm are produced by chemical commands from the nucleus of the cell. Cellular respiration refers to a series of chemical reactions in cells whereby ATP is produced by capturing the energy in food. The energy in food is found in the chemical bonds. ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) powers all chemical reactions in living systems. Besides forming ATP, metabolism also produces other chemicals, and heat. The cellular mechanisms responsible for harvesting energy in food are not 100% Glycolysis
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efficient. Energy is lost in the form of heat. Cells produce ATP by way of two different sets of chemical reactions: Substrate level Phosphorylation and Oxidative Phosphorylation. Glycolysis which means a break down of carbohydrates does not require oxygen to produce ATP and is therefore a form of Anaerobic Respiration. All the enzymes for its nine chemical reactions are found only in the cytoplasm of the cells. Oxidative Phosphorylation which requires oxygen and harvests far more ATP from food than Glycolysis takes place only in the mitochondria and is called Aerobic Respiration. Notice in Figure 1. that there are three chemical processes that occur to make ATP: Glycolysis which produces ATP by way of substrate-level phosphorylation which leads to the Krebs Cycles that produces ATP by substrate phosphorylation which leads to Oxidative Phosphorylation . Of these three processes that are all intertwined, Oxidative Phosphorylation makes the most ATP and is also dependant on oxygen. Notice that the Krebs Cycle is located in the mitochondria. The mitochondria were more than likely a bacterium that was able to form a relationship with another primitive cell to produce our animal cells. The mitochondria has its own unique DNA separate from that of the nucleus of the cell. Glycolysis is the doorway to Oxidative Phosphorylation. Glycolysis is the breakdown of a six carbon chain to a three carbon chain called pyruvate or pyruvic acid. It is the chemical doorway to Aerobic metabolism or Anaerobic metabolism. Pyruvate can be metabolized a number of ways. You cannot bypass Glycolysis to get to Oxidative Phosphorylation. However, Glycolysis does not have to proceed to the Krebs Cycle. If Glycolysis does
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GlycolysisPrint - Glycolysis Glycolysis provides energy for...

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