Erikson Research Paper - Polk State College Erikson...

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Polk State College Erikson Research Paper Lindsey Acosta Human Development: DEP 2004 Professor Myers April 27, 2015
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Many theories have developed over time in the field of psychology, especially pertaining to the development of a person and his or her personality. Erik Erikson developed the theory of Psychosocial Stages of Development, containing nine stages that help with the establishment of one’s personality. Erik Erikson stated,“There is, in every child at every stage, a new miracle of vigorous unfolding, which constitutes a new hope and a new responsibility for all.” This research paper will be discussing those nine stages as well as the possible positive and negative outcomes of each stage in which a personality is developed. The paper will also include an example of each stage from my own life as an illustration of each stage. Erik Erikson’s theory is loosely based upon that of Sigmund Freud, another psychologist who was very well known and active in his field. Though Erikson did not agree with Freud's views, he saw him as the genius that he was and acknowledged Freud's contributions to psychology (Crandell, Crandell, Zander 35). Like Sigmund Freud's theory of Psychosexual Stages, Erikson’s theory stated that one's personality develops based on the failure or success of passing through each stage. More so, Freud believed that one's personality develops within the first five to six years of life and that the personality is based on the failure or success of passing through the sexual , or pleasure-giving, stages (Crandell, Crandell, Zanden 35). Erikson's theory is similar, except he believed that personalities are established throughout one’s life span and through the passing of each social stage. Also, while Freud's theory includes six stages, Erikson's includes nine stages- Trust versus Mistrust, Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt, Initiative versus Guilt, Industry versus Inferiority, Identity versus Identity Confusion, Intimacy versus Isolation, Generativity versus Stagnation, Integrity versus Despair, and Hope and Faith versus Despair. Each stage contains a positive and negative outcome, as well as an interval in which the stage
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should last. The first stage in Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Development is Trust versus Mistrust. This stage starts at birth and ends at age one. This time interval is referred to as infancy. During this stage, the infant learns to develop either trust or mistrust in people and themselves. The positive, and preferred, outcome of this stage is trust in one's self, parents, and the world (Crandell, Crandell, Zanden 36). In order for there to be a positive outcome, there must be stability in the infant's life and schedule. “If the care the infant receives is consistent, predictive, and reliable, they [ sic ] will develop a sense of trust which will carry them [ sic ] to their [ sic ] relationships and they [ sic ] will be able to feel secure even when threatened” (McLeod “Erik Erikson”). In the same way, if an infant receives unpredictable and inconsistent care, he or she is
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