CarbMetabolismPrint - Carbohydrate Metabolism The digestion...

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The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth by the action of salivary amylase into smaller saccharide molecules. Saccharides like starch continue to be metabolized in the stomach by the enzyme ptyalin and in the small intestines by pancreatic amylase and maltase (See Figure 1). The metabolism of polysaccharides generates monosaccharides like glucose, fructose and galactose. These simple sugars are then absorbed in the small intestines and are carried by the hepatic portal vein to the liver. In the liver, where glucose is stored as glycogen, the effects of insulin activating the receptors on the cell surface lead to an increase in the storage of glucose as glycogen and a decrease in the release of glucose into the circulation by liver cells. In other tissues of the body, insulin increases glucose uptake by increasing the number of plasma membrane glucose transporters on the cell surface (Figure 2). When glucose is oxidized it releases energy in the form of ATP, CO 2, and H 2 O. During fasting or starvation, the body mobilizes fat reserves for ATP synthesis to supply the body with energy. Fat metabolism flows directly into the
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course BIOL 100 taught by Professor Lee during the Winter '07 term at San Diego State.

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CarbMetabolismPrint - Carbohydrate Metabolism The digestion...

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