10 - Locomotion & Rhythmic Behaviors - lecture slides

10 - Locomotion & Rhythmic Behaviors - lecture slides -...

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Action and Movement Locomotion & Rhythmic Patterns Neurophysiology University of Colorado at Boulder Department of Integrative Physiology
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Course Learning Goals ± Specifically, students should be able to: 1) predict & explain how the flow of ions across the nerve cell membrane can produce & influence the signals used in the nervous system to communicate information (both within & between neurons) 2) predict & explain how information in the nervous system is converted from one type of signal/information to another, & how the properties of neurons can influence this process 3a) predict & explain how the properties of individual neurons, & the types & patterns of connections between neurons, can influence activity in the nervous system, & how these b) can be adjusted, adapted or altered to suit the changing needs of an organism, & c) can influence behaviors, as demonstrated through three basic types of movement.
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Outline ± Locomotion ± Biomechanics of locomotion ± Neural organization of locomotion ± Central pattern generators ± Sensory input ± Descending pathways ± Implications for assisted locomotion training
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Recommended Reading ± From Kandel et al. (2000) Principles of Neuroscience Chapter 37: Locomotion, pp.737-754
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Locomotion & Rhythmic Behaviors (1) ± Locomotion = action of moving from place to place swimming, walking, slithering, flying, etc. ± In normal individuals, coordinated locomotion is associated with activity in the spinal cord , brainstem , cerebellum & cerebral cortex , each of which makes distinct contributions to the control of movement, including: initiating locomotion coordinating muscle activation patterns responding to perturbations making postural compensations implementing goal-directed changes in gait. ± All types of locomotion involve repetition of a sequence of muscle activity (alternating movements of body or appendages), and spinal cord circuits play key roles in coordinating this sequence. Repetitive quality of locomotion allows actions to be controlled automatically at lower levels of nervous system. However, locomotor movements must be continually modified as the animal moves among its surroundings.
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3 Basic Questions 1) How do systems of nerve cells generate rhythmic motor patterns associated with locomotion & other rhythmic behaviors? 2) How does sensory information modify patterns to adjust locomotor movements to both anticipated & unexpected events in the environment? 3) What role(s) do(es) descending input from supraspinal centers play?
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Locomotion (2) ± Human locomotion has several different modes: walk, race walk, run, and sprint. ± For all modes of locomotion muscles in each leg are activated to provide a phase of support ( stance ) and a phase of non-support ( swing ), when the leg is moved to its next stance phase.
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Locomotion (3) ± Specifics of limb movements can vary.
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10 - Locomotion & Rhythmic Behaviors - lecture slides -...

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