Bio Exam 1 Study Guide - Shannon Carney BI71A February 3 2016 Exam 1 Study Guide Exam Date Friday February 5 2016 Content Shuster Chapters 1 and 3

Bio Exam 1 Study Guide - Shannon Carney BI71A February 3...

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Shannon Carney BI71A February 3, 2016 Exam 1 Study Guide Exam Date: Friday, February 5, 2016 Content: Shuster Chapters 1 and 3, MMR/Autism Case Study, Class Notes Format: o 37 multiple choice questions (74 pts) o 5 graph interpretation questions (True/False; 10 pts) o Graphing (16 pts) Shuster Chapter One Notes Real World Example: The Java Report o Conflicting reports about the benefits and risks of caffeine Science is a Process o Science is a way of knowing and is also a method of seeking answers based on observations o Anecdotal evidence informal personal observations Anecdotes are usually unreliable, but can lead to questions o Peer-Review review of an article by experts weeks before publication This process weeds out sloppy research and biases present in the article o Hypothesis a tentative explanation for a scientific observation or question o Experiment carefully designed tests which will support or rule out a hypothesis o Sample size number of experimental subjects or number of times an experiment is repeated In human studies, the sample size is the number of participants o Statistical significance a measure of confidence in “real results” rather than results that came about due to chance The larger the sample, the more likely the results will have statistical significance o Scientific Theory an explanation of the natural world that is supported by a large body of evidence and has never been disproven Think Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, not results from one particular study o Epidemiology the study of patterns of disease in populations, including risk factors o Correlation a consistent relationship between two variables Remember, correlation is not causation o Randomized Clinical Trail a controlled medical experiment in which subjects are randomly chosen to receive either an experimental treatment or a standard treatment (or a placebo) Shuster Chapter Three Notes
Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928 Antibiotic a chemical that can slow the growth of bacteria o Many antibiotics are produced by living organisms Cell Theory the concept that all living organisms are made of cells and that cells are formed by the reproduction of existing cells Prokaryotic cells Cells that lack internal membrane-bound organelles o Bacteria are single-celled prokaryotes Examples of Eukaryotic Organisms o Diatoms (algae) are single-celled eukaryotes o Amoebas (protozoans) are single-celled eukaryotes o Molds (fungi) are single and multi-celled eukaryotes o Elodea (an aquatic plant) is a multicellular eukaryote o Humans are multicellular eukaryotes Antibiotics kill bacteria without harming their human or animal hosts Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells o Larger cells o Lots of membrane-bound organelles Cell Membrane a phospholipid bilayer that acts as the boundary of all cells Cytoplasm the gelatinous, aqueous interior of all cells Ribosome a complex of RNA and proteins that carries out protein synthesis in all cells

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