Notes for 4th quiz for BILD3

Notes for 4th quiz for BILD3 - Fossils-chimpanzee-like...

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Fossils -chimpanzee-like braincase (projecting ridges) and a human-like face: pushes our ancestry back, but molecular evidence suggests that it went extinct Hominid Fossils -Australopithecines went extinct in Africa -Australopithecines gave rise to Homo habilis who had a brain larger than an ape’s: human-type hands and tools date from that time -Homo erectus: discovered in island of Java of southeast Asia and also Africa: small brain, but successful; migrated to Asia from Africa soon after appearing, went to Java and survived -stone tools found on island of Flores (Indonesia): suggests that Homo erectus traveled from island to island over water -homo erectus may have lived in these island to more recent times as erectus descendants (hobbits); fossils found in cave: had small brains like chimps, but brain structure like erectus; used advanced tools, hearths, and used bones -homo floresiensis were pygmy and subject to selective pressures; different from our brains; shape resembled erectus brain, but enlarged frontal and parietal lobes=suggest they could speak -if floresiensis mitochondrial DNA is different from humans, that is evidence that they were descendents of homor erectus The Neanderthals -heavy-boned; lived in Europe and Middle East -100,000-27,000 years ago -were replaced by people who look like us, including Cro-Magnon and other immigrants into Europe and Middle east -pre-Neanderthals inhabited Europe before (800,000 years ago) -neanderthals disappeared about 27,000 years ago and Cro-Magnon appeared 40,000 years ago (coexisted for 13,000 years) -burnt wood and burn-pitted flints=ancient hearths: use of fire enabled pre-Neanderthals to colonize cold European north -wooden spears found associated with stone tools and butchered horse bones=oldest wooden artifacts -pierced teeth and ivory artifacts: not as sophisticated as those made by Cro-Magnon -Neanderthals=genetically different from us; mitochondrial DNA shows that they are related to us, but distinct from us -mitochondrial DNA is inherited as a unit, and can’t recombine with DNA of other parent, they diverge from each other through accumulation of mutational changes -did Neanderthals and modern humans interbreed: no direct genetic evidence -Neanderthals were light-skinned that mutation arose independently of the mutation that gives modern Europeans light skin -MC1R is a mutant allele in modern Europeans, in NeanderthalsMC1R is also defective, but due to a different mutational change: proteins unable to bind to cell surface Origin of Homo Sapiens -earliest fossils show close similarities to humans found in southern and eastern Africa and caves in Africa -200,000 years ago indicating that present humans emerged recently -slight brow-ridges and projecting chins -our species first appeared in Africa and has continued to evolve and diverge in Africa and elsewhere for the last 200,000 years Evidence for the Out-of-Africa Hypothesis -our species evolved in Africa, then spread to Asia and Europe -our species comes from gene phylogenies
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