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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 6 LEARN ING OBJECT IVES When you have mastered the material in this chapter, you should be able to do the following: 1. Describe Pavlov's demonstration of classical conditioning and the key elements in this form of learning.- Classical conditioning- a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. Pavlov would present meat powder to a dog and then collect the resulting saliva and the dog accustomed to the procedure would start salivating before the meat powder was presented. He then paired the presentation of the meat powder with various stimuli, like a tone. After the tone and the meat powder had been presented together a number of times, the tone was presented alone and the dogs responded by salivating to the sound. The key is that the tone had started out as a neutral stimulus- it did not originally produce the response of salivation. Pavlov changed that by pairing the tone and the meat powder and the tone acquired the ability to trigger salivation. What Pavlov demonstrated was stimulus response associations, the basic building blocks of learning.- Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)- a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning.- Unconditioned Response (UCR)- an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning.- Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.- Conditioned Response (CR )- a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning. 2. Discuss how classical conditioning may modulate everyday responses including physiological processes. 3. Describe the classical conditioning phenomena of acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, and higher-order conditioning.- Acquisition refers to the initial stage of learning something. Pavlov theorized that the acquisition of a conditioned response depends on stimulus contiguity- stimuli are contiguous if they occur together in time and space.- Extinction is the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency. A newly formed stimulus response bond does not necessarily last. The consistent presentation of the conditioned stimulus alone, without the unconditioned stimulus leads to extinction....
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