Chapter 13 - Chapter 13(Required pages 382-391...

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Chapter 13 (Required pages 382-391) Internalizing Problems: Two most common types of internalizing problems in adolescence and emerging adulthood (EA) are: Depression and Eating Disorders. DEPRESSION: enduring period of sadness. However psychologists make distinctions between different levels of depression. Depressed Mood: enduring period of sadness itself, with out any related symptoms. Most common kind of internalizing problem in adolescence. Adolescent's have higher rates of depressed mood than adults or children(quite rare in children). Beginning of adolescence marks steep increase in pervasiveness of depressed mood. Mid-adolescence peak. Depressive Syndrome: enduring period of sadness along with other symptoms such as frequent crying, feelings of worthlessness, feeling guilty, lonely, or worried. Major Depressive Disorder: The most serious form of depression. Includes following specific symptoms: 1. Depressed or irritable mood for most of the day, nearly every day. 2. Reduced interest or pleasure in all or almost all activities, nearly every day. 3. Significant weight loss or gain, or decrease in appetite. 4. Insomnia or oversleeping. 5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation, observable by others. 6. Low energy or fatigue. 7. Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt. 8. Diminished ability to think or concentrate. 9. Recurrent thoughts of death, recurrent suicidal thoughts. For diagnosis: five or more of these symptoms must be present during a 2 week period and must represent a change from a previous functioning. At least one of the symptoms must be depressed mood or reduced interest/pleasure. Causes of Depression : Differ somewhat depending on diagnosis of depressed mood, or the more serious form (depressive syndrome or disorder) Most common causes of depressed mood, tend to be common experiences among young people – conflict with friends or family members, disappointment or rejection in love, and poor performance in school. The causes of the more serious forms of depression are less common and more complicated.Studies have found that both genetic and environmental factors are involved and especially well established with respect to depression Diathesis-Stress Model is one useful model of this interaction of genetic and environmental factors with respect to depression as well as to other mental disorders. Theory behind the diathesis-stress model is that mental disorders such as depression often begin with a diathesis (preexisting vulnerability). Often this diathesis will have a genetic basis, (but not necessarily). However, a diathesis is only a vulnerability, a potential for problems. Expression of that vulnerability requires the existence of a stress as well, meaning environmental conditions that interact with the diathesis to produce the disorder.
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