Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 Summary Gender Purpose Assumptions...

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Chapter 5 Summary: Gender Purpose: Assumptions about male and female roles are already made in our mind and they can be wrong. Sex: the biological status of being male or female. Gender: the categories of males and female, established mainly by our cultural beliefs and practices than biology. Adolescents and gender in traditional culture: Adolescents' lives are different due to unique cultures/tradition. Traditional cultures, adolescents are expected to behave and work in specific ways. Girls work alongside their mothers at an early age, help take care of younger children, cook food, make clothes, gather firewood, perform all chores by the age of 6 or 7 or even earlier. There are many restrictions for girls. Sexual activities restriction for girls and not adolescent boys. Severe punishment can result if loss of girl's virginity before marriage. Chinese state that socialization becomes narrower for girls once they reach puberty. School is not part of an adolescent girl's experience. At around age 16, the time for marriage arrives. Boys work alongside their father. They have more freedom. Manhood has to be achieved. First the boy must provide, then protect and procreate. Adolescents boys are required to learn the skills of warfare, weapons, have courage, confident, boldness, fish and hunt. Provide: in the manhood requirements of traditional cultures, the requirement of being able to provide economically for one's self as well as a wife and children. Protect: In the manhood requirements of traditional cultures, the requirement of being able to assist in protecting one's family and community from human and animal attackers. Procreate: In the manhood requirements of traditional cultures, the requirement of being able to function sexually well enough to produce children. Adolescents and Gender in American History: Adolescents girls had only few professions to choose from which were teachers, nurse or seam-stress. Her future roles were as a wife and mother. They were considered as
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innocent and fragile. During the 1920s boyishness was in, but by the 1950s big breasts were in. Hymen: The thin membrane inside a girl's vagina that is usually broken during her first experience of sexual intercourse. Tested in some cultures before marriage to verify the girl's virginity. Adolescent boys had many responsibilities and considered more important. Males prepare to become "head of the house." Boys had many organizations (ex. debating societies, religious groups, rowdy competition, fighting and drinking alcohol). Men suggested that boys growing up in the city were soft and weak. They said in order to become a man they should join the military, play competitive sports in order to become strong and tough. Soon, anger and sexual desire became favourable. Also, self-expression and self-enjoyment replaced self-control and self-denial.
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