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Study Guide 1 - 1 A Political scientists measure power...

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1. A) Political scientists measure power as “the ability of a nation to exercise or resist  influence.” Power is measured by Poli scientists by the following three indicators: a. Population b. Industrial production and consumption c. Military personnel and expenditures 2. I. International systems are defined by the way in which power is distributed between  states. This distribution has been broken into three different systems: a. Hegemonic system- One great power i. Great Britain- 19 th  century ii. The USA- Post Cold War era b. Bipolar systems- Two great powers  Cold War era- USA and Soviet Unions c. Multi Polar systems (3 or more great powers) i. 1914-1930… 1930 – USA, Soviet Union and Germany (making up 70% of  total power)  II. Nexon and Wright  talk about the US as an empire, where the US uses divide  and rule tactics to control countries of the periphery. By forming networks  structures between countries core and periphery in order to exert control. The  US rules indirectly through intermediaries + heterogeneous contracting with  groups of the periphery.  Ties between the periphery are weak and sparse  whereas ties within the peripheries are strong and defensive.   Imperial relations  alter the way in which we see the international system. It goes from uni- polar/bi-polar/multi-polar to a network structure of divide and rule rather than  the use of balances of power. By exploiting the peripheries differences counter- alliances are prevented.   a. formal empire  Westward expansion through the Spanish-American  war. 
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b. Informal empire  WWII onward… began to lose steam toward the end  of the cold war.  3. Kagan’s  work asserts that a states attitude toward the international system is defined by  the amount of power that it has.  A powerful state such as the current US will tend to  favor coercion, finality, and quick response. Because of this they will tend to be less  dimplomatic and more unilateral.  A powerful state is less likely to utilize international  institutions/organizations like the UN. The powerful state yields strength and martial  glory. On the other hand a less powerful state, such as the nations of the EU, are more  likely to insist on patients, diplomacy and compromise because these policies favor  “equal voice for all countries regardless of power.” As a less powerful country, of course,  these institutions are favorable.  Bottom line: Powerful and weak states will act differently  because they have different capabilities and perspectives.  4. Walt and Nye take on a very different perspective on power than Kagan.  Walt  focuses  on the backlash effect of power. He says that there are costs to using power. 
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