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Unformatted text preview: ISS 215 10/19/06 --- Scientific Engagement with the Notion of Race U.S. Legal System and Race: Concern with racial mixing and the production of hybrids:- Hybrids seen as degenerate- Mixing endangered purity of white blood- Concern to keep races separate Jim Crow laws 1875 : U.S. Congress passes Civil Rights Act: states required to provide equal access to public facilities for all citizens 1883 : U.S. Supreme Court declared that 1875 Civil Rights Act was unconstitutional: infringed on individuals right to personal acts of discrimination This ruling made possible passage of segregation laws to create apartheid system in U.S. south.- Jim Crow laws established segregated schools, public facilities, transportation, etc. 1896- Plessy v. Ferguson: Supreme Court declared separate but equal constitutional Key part of Jim Crow/apartheid legislation = laws forbidding miscegenation need to clearly define races to apply laws (ex: who is white/black? who can go to this school? who can legally marry? who can ride the bus?) Line between black and white had been drawn at different fractions of blood in different places; it had been debated and changed over time.- To implement Jim Crow laws, 7 southern states adopted one-drop rule : any person with even 1 drop of black blood is categorized as black- But resistance to one-drop rule in SC, LA, and VA: o SC 1895: Some state legislators proposed 1-drop rule to define Blacks and prohibit interracial-marriage Second group argued against: would prevent many marriages between white families, since many of them had black ancestors Second group won: Negro defined as someone with 1/8 African ancestry o LA classified many mixed people as white o VA shifted from rule to 1/16 in 1910; adopted one-drop rule in 1930 1920: national census adopts one-drop rule:- mulatto category dropped from U.S. census- black category defined as any person with any black ancestry...
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- Fall '06