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Unformatted text preview: 9-12-06 --- “The Spirit and The Flesh” intro and Ch. 1-3Alternative gender categories among Native Americans:The berdache/two-spirit Many Native American societies do not perceive a 1-to-1 correspondence between sex and gender identities-113 Native American societies recognized more than 2 gender categories- Alternative categories for males were most common-33 societies had alternative categories for femalesWilliams’ research on alternative gender categories among Native Americans based on:-historical research-fieldwork: interviews and participant observation among Native Americans especially berdaches/two-spirits --- in the 1980s**Problems with the term “berdache”: term is derogatory, so we will use the term “two-spirit”.A two-spirit is:-Individual of male sex who does not fill a standard man’s gender role; they mix behavior, dress, and work of men and women-Stereotyped as effeminate, but more accurately characterized as androgynous....
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- Fall '06
- Native Americans in the United States, Native American societies, alternative gender categories