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Chapter 2 Lab Report

Chapter 2 Lab Report - Brendan Mahon MAE 224 Partners Jody...

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Brendan Mahon MAE 224 Partners: Jody Pederson Anthony Macdougal Kutadgu Akdogan 3/2/07 Wind Tunnel Measurements of Lift and Drag on a Model Airplane and a Smooth Sphere ABSTRACT We analyzed the properties of coefficients of drag and lift over a range of velocities for a variety of objects using an Aerolab wind tunnel. We first examined how a wind tunnel may be used to test large-scale models through measuring the axial and normal forces on an F-16 model over a range of speeds and angles of attack using strain gauges and converting these values into lift and drag. Our results compared well with our expected results, showing the same trends in coefficients of lift and drag as we would expect to see on a full size model. Although our results indicate that we did not increase the angle of attack to the stall point where the coefficients of lift peaks, we did observe the region where the coefficient of lift begins to increase less rapidly, indicating that we almost stalled the model. We also examined Reynolds number and coefficient of drag for a smooth sphere, a golf ball, and a sphere with a ring attached to the front. We observed that the coefficient of drag for the smooth sphere was far greater than that of the sphere with the ring or the golf ball at low velocities but plummeted to values lower than either the other two balls once it reached its critical Reynolds number. This is most likely due to the turbulent patterns created by the three balls and the velocities necessary to excite them. It’s apparent that the sphere with the ring and the golf ball created turbulent fluid patterns even at the relatively low initial velocities and that the smooth sphere required a higher velocity to create a turbulent flow behind it and thus reduce the size of its wake. Introduction Lift is the essential component of heavier than air flight. We measured how this lift changes over a variety of angles of attack, the angle that the wing makes with the horizontal, and wind speeds, simulating a variety of speeds at which the plane would travel. We expressed how this lift changes using the lift coefficient, QuickTime  and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. , which relates the lift generated by the aircraft to the area of the wing. We also measured how the drag of the aircraft, the force opposing the aircraft’s motion, changes over a variety of angles of attack and wind speeds using the drag coefficient. QuickTime  and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. . The drag coefficient describes the amount of aerodynamic drag caused by fluid flow. We measured the normal and axial forces, from which we derived the lift and
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drag forces using the following equations L=N - α cos A α sin D=A + α cos N α sin , using strain gauges attached to a bar in the wind tunnel to which our models were attached.
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