9. Native American - Lecture 8 Native America LIN 200 Language in the USA Andrei Antonenko 1 Native American Languages Overview 2 Native American Tribes

9. Native American - Lecture 8 Native America LIN 200...

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Lecture 8: Native America LIN 200: Language in the USA June 20, 2013 Andrei Antonenko 1
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Native American Languages Overview 2
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Native American Tribes Aleut (Alaska) Nez Perce (Idaho) Wasco Wishram (OR) Comanche (S. Central) Cherokee Shawnee Seminole Apache (South West) Navajo Hopi Lakota (North Central) Crow Chipewa (Ojibwa) Can you name some Native American Tribes? 3
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Navajo was used as a secret code by the Marines during WWII Navajo speakers would translate military orders into their native language and transmit them over the radio to other Navajo speakers on the other end This code was unbreakable because there were no speakers of the language available to the opposing military forces This was done with several Native American languages (including Choctaw, Cherokee, Lakota, and others) in both WWI and WWII Code-Talkers 4
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Overview Somewhere between 250 and 600 languages spoken in North America at the time of European contact In 1997 there were about 211 (175 in present U.S.) Only about 30 languages are still spoken by all generations. Over 70% (~150 languages) are in “extreme danger” of language death or extinction. 5
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Language Families The most widely accepted classification of Native American languages was made by Edward Sapir, 1929: Eskimo-Aleut (Alaska) Algonquian-Wakashan (North Central, Northeast, Canada) Na-dené (AZ, NM, TX, CO, WA) Penutian (North CA, OR) Siouan-Iroquoian-Caddoan (North Central) Aztec-Tanoan (Southwest US – NV, UT, CO, AZ) Salishan (WA, British Columbia) Gulf (Muskogean) (GA, AL, MS) 6
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Language Families Eskimo-Aleut Algonquian Na-Dené 7
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Language Families Penutian Siouan Iroquoian 8
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Language Families Uto-Aztecan Salishan Muskogean 9
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Language Families 10
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Language Families 11
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All Native American Languages 372,095 Navajo Na-Dené AZ, NM, UT, CO 169,471 Yupik Eskimo-Aleut AK 18,950 Dakota Siouan SD, ND, NE 18,616 Apache Na-Dené AZ, NM 13,063 Keres Siouan NM 12,945 Cherokee Iroqouian OK, NC (!) 11,610 Choctaw Muskogean OK, MS, LA, TN 10,343 Zuni isolate NM 9,686 Ojibwa Algonquian MI, WI, MN, ND, MO 8,371 Pima Uto-Aztecan AZ 7,270 Inupik Eskimo-Aleut AK 7,203 Hopi Uto-Aztecan AZ 6,634 Tewa Kiowa-Tanoan NM 5,176 Muskogee Muskogean OK,AL, GA, FL 5,064 12
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Native American Languages 13
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Speakers of Native American Languages 0 200 mi 0 400 km 0 300 km 0 150 mi 0 300 mi 0 590 km 0 150 km 0 75 mi Less than 500 500 to 999 1,000 to 4,999 10,000 and over Speakers per county 5,000 to 9,999 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006–2010 American Community Survey, 2006–2010 Puerto Rico Community Survey. Figure 1. Number of Speakers of Native North American Languages, by County: 2006–2010 14
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NY Native American Languages Montauk Cutchogue Nissequogue Mastic Merrick Unkechaug Patchogue Rockaway Jamaica Setauket Manhanset Metinecock Shinnecock 13 Native American tribes on Long Island 15
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NY Native American Languages Mohawk Oneida Seneca Cayuga Mohegan Onondaga Shinnecock (Eastern Long Island) Their language (an Algonquian) died out in early 19 th century, but tribe still survives 16
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NY Native American Languages
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  • Native Americans in the United States, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Native American languages

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