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Unformatted text preview: -1 What are norms, values, ideologies, stratification, inequality, and Bergers techniques and agents of social control? Norms Rules of conduct which specify appropriate behaviour in a given range of social contexts. A norm either prescribes a given type of behaviour, or forbids it. All human groups follow definite types of norm, which are always backed by sanctions of one kind or another - varying from informal disapproval to physical punishment or execution. [Anthony Giddens, Sociology . London: Polity Press, 1997:583] Socially accepted 'correct' or 'proper' forms of behaviour. Norms either prescribe given types of behaviour or forbid them. Values Ideas held by human individuals or groups about what is desirable, proper, good or bad. Differing values represent key aspects of variations in human culture. What individuals value is strongly influenced by the specific culture in which they happen to live. Ideology Shared ideas or beliefs which serve to justify the interests of dominant groups. Ideologies are found in all societies in which there are systematic and ingrained inequalities between groups. The concept of ideology connects closely with that of power, since ideological systems serve to legitimize the differential power which groups hold. Inequalities stratification System for ranking society members based on certain characteristic (related to distribution of resources and status. Ideology belief system that justifies/ challenges particular social social arrangements. (religions, sciences) Techniques of Social control Violence or the threat of violence Political sanctions Economic sanctions Threat of ostracism Ridicule and gossip Persuasion of intimates Internalization of norms Agents of social control?- Media, Friends, Police, State, You and Me Berger Social Control The system of rewards and punishments( positive and negative sanctions) that ensure (most) people adhere to the socially agreed upon standards of behavior(I.e.) Know the assumptions of social constructionism and essentialism. Be able to distinguish when the assumptions of one perspective or another are being relied upon for a description of or explanation of sexuality. Assumptions of Essentialism Social phenomena are natural and universal Nature Society Nature determines social arrangements There are no historical or social influences Sex is a natural force that exists prior to social influences True form exists in nature Essence of social phenomenon can be placed into distinct categories Constancy of categories Mutually exclusive Mutually exhaustive Social phenomenon is biologically determined...
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2008 for the course ENVS 1000 taught by Professor Neff,jason during the Spring '07 term at Colorado.
- Spring '07