{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Exam 1 solutions - What are norms values ideologies...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
-1 What are norms, values, ideologies, stratification, inequality, and Berger’s techniques and agents of social control? Norms Rules of conduct which specify appropriate behaviour in a given range of social contexts. A norm either prescribes a given type of behaviour, or forbids it. All human groups follow definite types of norm, which are always backed by sanctions of one kind or another - varying from informal disapproval to physical punishment or execution. [Anthony Giddens, Sociology . London: Polity Press, 1997:583] Socially accepted 'correct' or 'proper' forms of behaviour. Norms either prescribe given types of behaviour or forbid them. Values Ideas held by human individuals or groups about what is desirable, proper, good or bad. Differing values represent key aspects of variations in human culture. What individuals value is strongly influenced by the specific culture in which they happen to live. Ideology Shared ideas or beliefs which serve to justify the interests of dominant groups. Ideologies are found in all societies in which there are systematic and ingrained inequalities between groups. The concept of ideology connects closely with that of power, since ideological systems serve to legitimize the differential power which groups hold. Inequalities stratification System for ranking society members based on certain characteristic (related to distribution of resources and status. Ideology belief system that justifies/ challenges particular social social arrangements. (religions, sciences) Techniques of Social control Violence or the threat of violence Political sanctions Economic sanctions Threat of ostracism Ridicule and gossip Persuasion of intimates Internalization of norms Agents of social control? - Media, Friends, Police, State, You and Me Berger Social Control Ÿ The system of rewards and punishments( positive and negative sanctions) that ensure (most) people adhere to the socially agreed upon standards of behavior(I.e.) Know the assumptions of social constructionism and essentialism. Be able to distinguish when the assumptions of one perspective or another are being relied upon for a description of or explanation of sexuality.
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Assumptions of Essentialism Ÿ Social phenomena are natural and universal Nature à Society Ÿ Nature determines social arrangements Ÿ There are no historical or social influences Ÿ Sex is a natural force that exists prior to social influences Ÿ True form exists in nature Ÿ Essence of social phenomenon can be placed into distinct categories Ÿ Constancy of categories Ÿ Mutually exclusive Ÿ Mutually exhaustive Ÿ Social phenomenon is biologically determined Ÿ
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern