Final Exam - lFormatforfinalexam (3pointseach: inthedescription 5IDs(8pointseach: significance 2Essays(15pointseach:5

Final Exam - lFormatforfinalexam (3pointseach:...

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Unformatted text preview: l Format for final exam: 10 geography questions (3 points each): Match the number that corresponds to the location in the description 5 IDs (8 points each): Write 2­3 sentences defining each term and explaining its historical significance 2 Essays (15 points each): 5+ sentences answering the question or questions. ∙ ∙ Please be able to locate and explain the significance of the following cities or regions: Aachen­​ 4 ­​ ​ Carolingian empire under Charlemagne ­​ ​ Palace and leaders at Aachen ­​ ​ Included administrative infrastructure: counts and missi dominici (messengers of the lord) ­ Center of learning ­ Beacon of education Baghdad ­​ 10 ­ Abbasid caliphate established capital at Baghdad ­​ ​ House of wisdom (ulama would go there to train) ­​ ​ Greek and Roman texts from everywhere go to the house of wisdom to be translated ∙ to Arabic ­​ ​ Had public libraries ­​ ​ Widespread use of paper ­​ ​ Seljuk Turks take Baghdad Cordoba​ ­ 1 ­​ ​ became the political and cultural center of the Islamic west ­​ ​ umayyad stayed in the Iberian peninsula, capital made at Cordoba ­​ ​ Huge center of learning ∙ ∙ ∙ ∙ Constantinople­​ 6 ­​ ​ The byzantine empire was in Constantinople ­​ ​ People spoke Greek and called themselves romans. ­​ ​ Centralized Government ­­> the basillus ­​ ​ Constantinople was destroyed during the Nike riots ­​ ​ After the riots, it was renovated and defined as Byzantine ­​ ​ Entire region taken over by the ottoman turks in 1453 ­­> collapse of the byzantine Ireland­​ 2 th​ ­​ ​ Peaked as a place of importance in 9​ century th​ th​ ­​ ​ 6​ – 9​ century: golden age of innovation ­​ ​ People converted to Christianity by St. Patrick (slavery was not Christian) ­​ ​ Celtic Monastic Rule: catholic Christians reported to the pope ­​ ​ Only place you could have gotten an education ­​ ​ Invaded by the Vikings. Jerusalem ​ ­7 ­​ ​ first crusade, Jerusalem was captured ­​ ​ Jerusalem becomes a separate kingdom ­​ ​ Battle of hattin paved way by Saladin to retake Jerusalem ­ Known as the holy land Mecca ​ ­9 ­​ ​ Where Hajj is taken place ­​ ​ People of medina decide to retake Mecca with 10,000 people ­​ ​ The Ka’ba (site for trade and religious gatherings) is located in mecca Medina ​ ­8 ­​ ​ Burial place of prophet Mohammad ­​ ​ Second holiest city in Islam ­​ ​ Medina was Mohammad’s destination after his hijrah from mecca ­​ ​ Al medina simply means the city ∙ Normandy ​ ­3 ­​ ​ Northman’s land ­​ ​ Viking expansion ­​ ​ Battleground (Viking raids) ­ permanent settlement for the Vikings ∙ Scandinavia ​ ­5 ­​ ​ Vikings are the Norsemen that left Scandinavia ­​ ​ (Germanic­Speaking people from Scandinavia) Please be able to identify the following individuals and explain their contributions to history ∙ Constantine ­ ­ First Christian emperor of Rome. ­ Re­unified the empire ­ He made Christianity a lawful religion in Roman society ­ He founded the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. ∙ Charlemagne ­ ­ or Charles the Great, was king of the Franks, 768­814, and emperor of the carolingian empire(West, 800­814). ­ He founded the Holy Roman Empire, stimulated European economic and political life, and fostered the cultural revival known as the Carolingian Renaissance. ­ Carolingian empire under his rule became the largest in Western Europe since the fall of Rome ∙ Leif Eriksson ­ ­ ​ first to set foot in the new world, opening a new land rich with resources for the vikings to explore. Norse/ Viking ­ Son of erik the red ­ His father was Exiled ­ Discovered north america ∙ Justinian and Theodora­ ­ Theodora was the empress of the Byzantine empire. ­ Hagia Sophia built under them. ­ Theodora was a circus performer. Renovation of cities. ­ Justinian made Law codes, and expanded empire. ∙ Muhammad ​ ­ ­ Merchant who turned prophet. ­ Followers called themselves Muslims. ­ Angel in the form of man told him to spread the message that there was only one God, and revealed the Qur’an. ­ Qur’an was his spiritual teachings written in Arabic. Founder of Islam ∙ ­ ­ ∙ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ∙ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ∙ ­ ­ ­ ­ Pope Urban II​ ­ Called first crusade to take Nicaea and the Levant. He granted a plenary indulgence to all of those who crusade. Responsible for the first crusade. Saladin ​ ­ was sultan of Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Yemen founded the Ayyubid dynasty, and captured Jerusalem from the Christians. Was respected by Christians because he let them go instead of killing them. Was an anti­crusader and ended christian attempt to take egypt Launched biggest land battle in jerusalem: Battle of Hatin Genghis Khan​ ­ “​ Universal Leader”, leader of the mongols and controlled the largest land empire. Rapidly expanded the Mongol Empire. Band tribes together and took local territories. Established trade routes with high speed horses, also establishing postal service. Transmit messages within hours. Used brutal war tactics Allowed for the transmission of black death Ferdinand and Isabella Sponsored Columbus Started spanish inquisition Isabella was super religious; iberian muslims and jews were driven out Continued reconquista ∙ ­ ­ ∙ ­ ­ ­ ∙ ­ ­ ­ ­ ∙ ­ Please be able to define and explain the significance of the following: Caesaropapism­ when the emperor is head of the state and church (double power); started by Constantine Council of Nicaea­ Constantine standardized christianity (325CE); Meeting of Christian Bishops; Closed canon of New Testament Cenobites­ Lived in a common lived under an abbot started out living in caves (monks) Scriptoriums (preserving manuscript) Basilius­ Emperor of Byzontine empire ­ ∙ ­ ­ ∙ ­ ­ ­ ∙ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ∙ ­ ­ ∙ ­ ­ ∙ ­ ­ ∙ ­ ­ ­ ­ ∙ ­ ­ ­ ∙ ­ ­ ­ ­ Roughly translates to “Head of Courts”, Justinian & Theodora(Example) Nike Riots­ 30,000 were killed Led to the Destruction of Constantinople. Rebuilt after riots. Kaaba­ building at the center of Al­Masjid Al­Haram in Mecca. Before Islam:­ Trade hub, peaceful place where idols were kept; house of rock built by abraham Site of Hajj Qur’an­ The word of god that contains revelations to his prophet muhammad The holy book of islam, “finest piece of literature in arabic history” Chapters: Surahs; Verses: ayas It is not about Muhammad's life God is not personified Caliph­ Leader of the muslim community Religious/political “House of Wisdom”­ Translated Greek/Roman text, originated in Baghdad spread the use of paper The Great Schism­ ​ A split with the [roman catholic] church. ( Latin Christian and Eastern Orthodox.) The cause of it was over papal authority. Gregorian Reforms­ Reformed the clergy more educated clergy integrity of clergy: banned simony, enforced celibacy popular christianity Plenary Indulgence­ If fought in crusade, buying for forgiveness Granted to those in the crusade by pope Urban II used to help Alexius I against the turks Reconquista­ ​ land captured by spanish; Portugal→ Spain; Umayyad conquest of iberian peninsula; resumed apocalypticism and land competition For the test, please be able to… 1) Trace the transmission of Greek and Latin texts and ideas from the Fall of Rome to th​ the 12​ century Renaissance through more than one route ­ After the fall of Rome only a few centers remained in Europe where Byzantium translated things to Greek, notably that was the spread of the monastic idea of keeping of text in Ireland as well as in the Court of Aachen in the Carolingian empire. ­ As trade routes increased Baghdad became the center intellectual and academic hub with the House of Wisdom and where all the text from Europe was translated from Latin and Greek to Arabic. ­ As the crusades came along and people started using the same paths an influx of ideas came with them and it eventually spread back to Europe and was translated back into Latin. ­ North Africa or the Iberian Peninsula was another route people took to get from Baghdad to W. Europe. 2) Explain the political and religious factors that led up to the Crusades ­Before the Gregorian reforms (11th and 12th century) there was a low literacy rate among local clergy & laity and there was little understanding of Christian theology. ­After the reforms there was an increase in education in the clergy, enforcement of laws concerning chastity, simony and pluralism for the clergy, and an overall increased presence of the Church. This marked an increase in Christianity where there was a rise in persecution for non­christians. ­ These were essentially holy wars fought between muslims and christians. The Seljuk Turks, who were muslim, fought against the Byzantine Empire, who were christian, in the Battle of Manzikert where Byzantine lost. Eventually, they requested assistance from christians throughout Europe and requested the aid of Pope Urban II. ­Pope Urban II calls for a crusade to take the Nicaea and the Levant from the Seljuk Turks and he grants plenary indulgences to all those who crusade. ­ There were many reasons why christians fought in the crusade. A few of those reasons include guaranteed passage into heaven (many convicts jumped at this opportunity), the desire to take control of Jerusalem away from muslims, the chance to travel and make money, and the possibility for younger sons of European nobles to receive new land in the middle east. 3) Describe the effects that the Black Death had on Europe culturally, religiously and politically ­Originated in Cambodia from fleas and rats. Airborne. Appeared in 1340s in China along coast, same time Genghis Khan establish trade routes. Europe establish new trade routes with middle east. ­Harvests were ruined. People were starving to death. People leaving farms going into city to find jobs, increased urbanization. Wheat begins to be stored, gets moldy due to humidity. Rats begin to increase. 70­90% fatalities, areas heavily affected by trade. Death to 19 million people in 14th century. The economy suffered for a while because with the half the population lost, there was no one at the time to come in for those jobs. Increased in religious fervor, people try to find who is blamed. Jews get blamed , people are being burned alive & exiled. Accused of not believing in god and poisoning wells. Anti­Semitism. Long­term results: Increased wages, falling prices for goods all which were caused by the lowering of the population 4​ ) Describe how the balance of power shifted between Western Europe, Eastern Europe and the Middle East throughout the medieval period ­500 CE: Eastern Europe strongest military, everyone could read, not super educated but literate. They had a strong economy and organized bureaucracy. ­700­950 CE: Middle East/ N Africa­ They had a strong caliphate (political and religious unity)They had a strong military and large land holding. ­1000­1200 5) Compare the Viking and Columbian contacts with North America in terms of their impact on the peoples and environment of North America ­Vikings were master navigators who were in search of arable land and because they went through a population explosion, they decided to set out to find new land. ­Traveled to Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Greenland with Eric the Red ­Also traveled to Newfoundland/Vinland with Bjarni Herjolfsson and Leif Eriksson, were repelled by the Native Americans because they did not want conflict and the climate was colder ­Less diseases, better military, natives were not dying because they (natives) were healthier ­The Spanish, lead by Christopher Columbus, brought new crops, new diseases, new animals like horses. ­Since they landed in a warmer climate, diseases were able to thrive unlike if they were to land up north like the Vikings did. ­The Spanish were exposed to more they were able to pass more diseases off to animals and people. BECAUSE OF THE SHIPS ...
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