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CCNA Study Notes - OSI Application Presentation Session...

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OSI Application Presentation Session Transportation Network Data Link Physical 1. Physical- A. Cables B. Termination C. No Protocols D. Dummy Hardware (Hubs, Repeaters, Jacks, etc.) E. Encapsulation BITS 2. Data Link- A. Hardware Addressing B. Simi-Intelligent Hardware (Switches) C. Switching Takes Place D. Encapsulation FRAMES E. MAC Address 3. Network- A. Intelligent Hardware (Routers) B. TCP/IP C. Routing protocols D. TCP-Reliable UDP- Unreliable E. IP Addressing F. Encapsulation PACKETS 4. Transportation A. Encapsulation SEGMENTS B. Error Control and Reliability C. Flow Control D. Three Way Handshake (Req-Ack-sync) E. Windowing 5. Session A. Dialogue Control between Devices B. Responsible for setting up, managing, and tearing down sessions between Presentation Layer Entities C. Encapsulation DATA D. Protocols- SQL, NFS, Xwindows, 6. Presentation A. Presents data to the application layer B. Responsible for translation of code C. Encapsulation DATA 7. Application A. Layer where users interact with the computer
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B. Encapsulation DATA C. Services Ethernet Networking Ethernet- Shared Bandwidth over a single media. Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) A. Prevents collisions by preventing multiple users from transmitting data at the same time. B. Steps Taken to Prevent Collisions a. HostA Sends Data b. HostB detects HostA sending Data c. HostB sends Jam signal d. Jam Signal stops all hosts on segment from sending data (Busy Signal) e. All hosts are given a random number via Backoff Algorithm f. When Backoff Expires station can retransmit. C. Drawbacks of CSMA/CD a. Delay b. Low Throughput c. Congestion D. Flow Control a. Windowing (sliding windows) b. Buffering c. Congestion Avoidance d. 3 way handshake Three Layer Hierarchical Model 1. Core/Backbone a. Major Purpose is to switch traffic as fast as possible b. Fault Tolerance is a major issue c. Transport large amounts of traffic quickly and reliably 2. Distribution a. Workgroup Layer b. Routing c. Filtering d. WAN access e. Implementation of ACLs, Filtering, and Queuing f. Security Policies, Routing Policies, Routing, and Redistribution 3. Access a. Segmentation b. Connectivity c. Desktop Layer Full Duplex/Half Duplex 1. Half Duplex a. Uses one pair of wires with digital signal running both directions on the wire
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b. 3-4Mbps at most c. Generally 10BaseT 2. Full Duplex a. Two pair of wires b. Point to Point connection c. No collisions d. 20Mbps e. HUBS CAN NOT RUN FULL DUPLEX f. Switch to Host, Switch to Switch, Host to Host Ethernet Frames 1. Ethernet_II 2. IEEE 802.3 3. IEEE 802.2 4. SNAP FRAME MAKUP Preamble- Alternating Binary pattern provides a 5MHz clock at the start of each packet, allowing receiving devices to lock onto the bit stream Start Frame Delimiter (SFD)/Synch- The Preamble is seven octets and the SFD is one octet(synch). The SFD is 10101011, where the last pair of 1s allows the receiver to come into the alternating binary pattern somewhere in the middle and still sync up.
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