Chapter 7,8,9-Vocabulary

Chapter - Chapter 7 Vocabulary 1)Photosynthesis-The process by which green plants use the sun's energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide

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Chapter 7 Vocabulary 1.)Photosynthesis-The process by which green plants use the sun's energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. photo=light synthesis=put together. 2.)Fuel-compounds that cells can use for energy. The major fuels include glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids; other fuels include ketone bodies, lactate, glycerol, and alcohol. 3.)Metabolism-the sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on in living cells. Energy metabolism includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and expends the energy from food. 4.)Anabolism-reactions in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones. Anabolic reactions require energy. 5.)catabolism-reactions in which large molecules are broken down to smaller ones. Catabolic reactions release energy. 6.)ATP-(adenosine tri-phosphate.) a common high-energy compound composed of a purine (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. 7.)Coupled Reactions-pairs of chemical reactions in which some of the energy released from the breakdown of one compound is used to create a bond in the formation of another compound. 8.)Coenzymes-complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity. Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structures. 9.)Pyruvate-a 3-carbon compound that plays a key role in energy metabolism. 10.)Acetyl CoA-a 2-carbon compound to which a molecule of CoA is attached. 11.)CoA-coenzyme; the coenzyme derived from the B vitamin pantothenic acid and central to energy metabolism. 12.)TCA cycle-(tricarboxylic acid cycle) a series of metabolic reactions that break down molecules of acetyl CoA to carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms; also called the Kreb's cycle after the biochemist who elucidated its reactions. 13.)Electron Transport Chain-the final pathway in energy metabolism that transports electrons from hydrogen to oxygen and captures the energy released in the bonds of ATP. 14.)Glycolysis- the meabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate. Glycolysis does not require oxygen (anaerobic.) 15.)Anaerobic- not requiring oxygen. 16.)Aerobic-requiring oxygen. 17.)Mitochondria-the cellular organelles responsible for producing ATP; made of membranes (lipid and protein) with enzymes mounted on them. 18.)Lactate- a 3-carbon compound produced from pyruvate during anaerobic metabolism. 19.)Cori Cycle- the path from muscle glycogen to glucose to pyrubate to lactate (which travels to the liver) to glucose (which can travel back to the muscle) to glycogen; named after the scientist who elucidated this pathway. 20.)Fatty Acid Oxidation- the metabolic breakdown of fatty acids to acetyl CoA; also called beta oxidation. 21.)Keto-acid- an organic acid that contains a carbonyl group. 22.)Ammonia- a compound with the chemical formula NH
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course NHM 101 taught by Professor Baker- during the Spring '08 term at Alabama.

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Chapter - Chapter 7 Vocabulary 1)Photosynthesis-The process by which green plants use the sun's energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide

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