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Study_Guide_for_First_ME_test

Study_Guide_for_First_ME_test - Study Guide for First ME...

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Study Guide for First ME Test 1. Remember the difference between normative and descriptive ethics, and that law is not the same as morality (though the two can be linked in many cases). 2. Relativism vs. objectivism. Objectivists say there is a right way to live/act and that those who disagree are simply wrong. A cultural relativist says that morality varies by culture but that there is right or wrong within each culture. A subjectivist says that morality is up to individuals, which is like saying there is no such thing as a moral rule. 3. Know what a moral dilemma is. Know what a prima facie duty is (pg. 14 and also notes on deontology). 4. Know the difference between specifying and balancing, and between authority rules, procedural rules, and substantive rules. 5. Basic figures for each theory: Virtue Ethics-Aristotle, Utilitarianism-Mill, Deontology- Kant. 6. Virtue ethics focuses on character traits. Make sure you know what that means and how it differs from principle based ethics. Know the basic advantages and disadvantages of virtue ethics. 7. What is the Golden Mean? Why is it significant for virtue ethics? 8. Know each of the five focal virtues in medicine, which begin on pg. 32 (compassion, discernment, trustworthiness, integrity, conscientiousness). Remember the Golden Mean is important for each. Each can be taken too far. Be able to tell which one is being used if I give a particular situation in a medical setting. For example, if a doctor begins to feel that she is making decisions based on the cost of procedures, which virtue might she decide she is lacking? 9. What is conscientious objection? 10. One major advantage of virtue ethics is the notion of aspiration. Virtue ethics tells us to aspire to do more than what is minimally required of us. It asks us to be as good as we can. Principles mainly tell us what not to do. If you avoid being immoral, the principles tend to say you acted morally. Utilitarianism may be an exception here, because it demands that you produce the greatest good. But even here, the rules are strict. Once you determine the action, you must do it. With virtue, you act more flexibly. You determine
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