1493 Unit 1 Glossary - updated - Glossary History...

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GlossaryHistory 1493/Exam 1Alger, Horatio (1832 - 1898):Author of 119 novels which were based on the rags-to-riches idea. Among Alger's books are The Cash Boy, Driven From Home, The Errand Boy, A Fancy of Hers, Street Life in New York(or Ragged Dick), and Winning Out by Pluck, all available on line in case you would like to sample a style of books that appealed to and inspired youth a hundred years ago. These stories represent the ideal that hard work and good character will lead to financial success. These books became the ideal for middle-class Americans and were seen as the way out of poverty.American Federation of Labor:Federation of craft unions founded in 1881 by Samuel Gompers which broke with the Knights of Labor in 1886 and which organized skilled workers only and avoided political reforms while emphasizing immediate, realizable "bread and butter" goals such as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions. Gompers rejected socialism, instead wanting to protectskilled workers from the excesses of capitalists."Atlanta Compromise":Speech delivered by Booker T. Washington at the Atlanta Exposition of 1895 in which he laid out a policy of accommodation suggesting that blacks should focus first on self-development and economic independence but not on immediate access to the vote, civil rights, and socialequality with whites all of which would come later. Washington (born a slave and raised in the South) argued against Negroes being dependent on whites or the federal government for their well-being. It also represents one of two main strains of thought within the black community, one calling for complete equality and full participation now (as expressed by W.E.B. DuBois, from Massachusetts) and one calling for black pride and self-development.
black codes:Laws passed by Southern states under Johnsonian Reconstruction in 1865 which limited the rights of blacks and attempted to control the actions of freedmen socially, politically, and economically. These controls included the denial ofthe right to vote, vagrancy laws, harsh penal codes and generally threatened blacks with second-class citizenship so that slavery could be restored in all but name. Such actions convinced many in the North that Southerners were not repentant and not prepared to live up to the principles of liberty and equality for all, leading to more support for the Radical Republicans and a refusal by Congress in December 1865 to readmit the new southern state governments, thereby extending Reconstruction.carpetbaggers: Northerners who moved South after the Civil War for idealistic and materialistic purposes and who were so named by Southerners to discredit them as scoundrels and thieves. As Republicans, they came into control of some southern stateand municipal governments during Reconstruction. They were accused of corruption partly because there was corruption but more often because their policies of rebuildingthe South (including railroads and public schools) were unpopular and even more because these governments included blacks. They are representative of the mix of idealism and materialism of the time.

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