Note 4Plato's Theory of What is a Just Society

Note 4Plato's Theory of What is a Just Society -...

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P10F07Handout4 Plato's Theory of What is a Just Society (city-state) 1. P divides this question into two: What is a just city-state? and What is a just person? Pg. 55 Out of all the things that can be just (or unjust), apparently Plato thinks these two are the most important. But once we divide the question in this way, we have to ask how these two important cases of justice are related to each other, so that we can have a coherent and unified theory of justice. 2. Three possible ways to relate just city-state and just person: 1. Define a just person first, and then define a just city-state as one composed of just persons. 2. Define a just city-state first, and then define a just person as one who subscribes to the principles by which a city-state is just. 3. Define a just city-state first, and then define a just person as one whose soul is structurally similar, or isomorphic to the just city-state. This is Plato's way. II. Plato's method for discovering what is a just city-state. 1. Plato does not use T's or G's methods. Instead, he uses a procedure suggested by his theory of Function and Virtue. Notice that the theory is now used to discover what justice is; unlike the use of the theory in Bk. I to prove the benefits of justice before discovering what justice is. Apparently, the theory can be used for both purposes, but now it is used in the correct order of investigation. 2. Plato’s theory of Function and Virtue: a. Some things have a function. Assumption b. ". ...the work of a horse or anything else is that which one can do only with it or best with it." (352e) Restated as: ". .. that is the work of a thing which it only or it better than anything else can perform." Definition c. Things with a function may perform their function well or poorly.
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Note 4Plato's Theory of What is a Just Society -...

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