Chapter_2_Outline_-_updated_0830

Chapter_2_Outline_-_updated_0830 - II. Chapter 2:...

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II. Chapter 2: Description Statistics: Tabular and Graphical Presentations Objectives: 1. Recognize which summaries are used for Quantitative or for Qualitative Data. 2. Construct a frequency table, bar graph and pie chart for qualitative data. 3. Convert raw data into a data array. 4. Construct frequency table, relative and cumulative frequency tables, and histogram for quantitative data. 5. Construct a stem-and-leaf display to represent quantitative data.
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A. Introduction: Data are usually collected, entered, and saved into some form of database. In this form, trends and characteristics are not easily detectable as there can sometimes be millions of pieces of data. We want to summarize/reduce the data to a form which is more easily interpreted and which will aid in decision- making. Many summaries are found in newspapers, magazines, internet, annual reports, and research studies; therefore, it is important for you to understand how these summaries are constructed.
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B. Summarizing Qualitative Data (Sect 2.1) 1. Frequency Distribution - a tabular summary of a data showing the frequency of items in each of several distinct categories. Example: Dr. Nunnery recorded the number of students in each of the following academic majors and wanted to summarize: MAJOR FREQ RELATIVE FREQ PCT FREQ ISDS 24 .253 25.3 FIN 9 .095 9.5 MKT 15 .158 15.8 ACCT 7 .074 7.4 PBADM 40 .421 42.1 TOTAL 95 1.001 100.1 Relative frequencies and percent frequencies may not add up to exactly 1.00 due to rounding.
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2. Bar Graph – graphical representation of data where each category is depicted by a bar representing the frequency or proportion of observations falling into a category. (Note: bars do not touch)
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Chapter_2_Outline_-_updated_0830 - II. Chapter 2:...

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