2-4-08 - • Siblings(full – 0.5 • Uncle/niece/nephew...

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Anth-200 (2/4/08) Individual vs. Group selection Darwinian selection o What matters in life, organism attempts to enhance its fitness at all costs. o Natural selection and sexual selection are parallel forces. Individual selection (Darwin 1859, GC Williams 1966): Animals do not behave for the good of the group or the good of the species – apparent altruism is really just the byproduct of selfish behavior. Group selection: animals actively behave in ways that help the group; e.g., when overpopulated, they limit their reproduction – lemmings, antelopes Level of selection o Proximate – how things work? o Ultimate: why things are the way they are? Inclusive fitness/kin selection o Inclusive fitness – one’s own fitness plus the fitness of one’s close kin. o Kin selection: Coefficient of relatedness Parents – offspring: 0.5
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Unformatted text preview: • Siblings (full) – 0.5 • Uncle/niece/nephew: 0.25 • Grandparents, grandchild: 0.25 • First cousin: 0.125 • Parent-offspring conflict o Mother fetus conflict o Weaning conflict Tempo and mode in Evolution • Reductionism vs. holism: adaptationism examined. o Reductionism: the way the science is done Trying to understand by takings things apart. Taking the car apart o Holism • Gould and Eldredge – the spandrels of San Marcos Linnean Nomenclature 1. Kingdom 2. Phylum (subphylum) 3. Class 4. Order (suborder) 5. Family (superfamily, subfamily) 6. Genus 7. Species (Subspecies) • Primate species alive today: 250(?) • Species of living mammals : 4,500 • Species of birds: 11,000 • Total species on earth today: 5 -10 million • Total species in earth’s history: 5 billion....
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2-4-08 - • Siblings(full – 0.5 • Uncle/niece/nephew...

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